Internet threat news
Attackers have been actively exploiting a zero-day vulnerability in the widely used Oracle WebLogic Server to deliver not one but two ransomware variants. Zero-day vulnerabilities can be defined as a software security flaw that doesn’t yet have a patch. These vulnerabilities can result in security holes waiting to be exploited by cybercriminals. What is truly novel, and somewhat frightening, about the attack is the ransomware can be downloaded and executed without the end user clicking on anything, the attacker simply exploits the vulnerability. Traditionally, ransomware infections require the end user to initiate the downloading of the malware. This can be done by clicking a link or downloading an attachment, as examples. The above attack does not need this once an integral step to infection.
The vulnerability exploited in the attack was discovered two weeks ago along with a proof of concept exploit code. The vulnerability, CVE-2019-2725, was made public by the Chinese National Vulnerability Database and according to researchers from the security educational group SANS ISC warned that the vulnerability was under active attack. The vulnerability is regarded by experts as easy to exploit and allows the attacker the ability to execute code of their choice on cloud servers. The disclosure caused Oracle to release an emergency patch and it is strongly advised that administrators download the patch if they have not already.
Researchers at Malwarebytes have been closely following a sustained campaign against both users of the popular Electrum Bitcoin wallet and the company itself. What initially started out as a phishing campaign which was designed to trick users into downloading a malicious version of the wallet by exploiting a weakness in the Electrum software. This malicious wallet would then steal funds from the victim, by February of 2019 the attackers had stolen approximately 4 million USD, and in April this number has increased to 4.6 million USD. In February, the wallet's developers responded by exploiting the same flaw in order to redirect users to download the latest patched version.
For most incidents that would be the end, however, in March it became apparent that the software was in far more trouble than originally believed. The developers of the wallet actually had to attack their own users using an unknown vulnerability so that they couldn’t accidentally connect to a bad node exploited by the attackers. Now the attackers have responded by infecting machines with a botnet in order to carry out Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks against the wallet’s infrastructure. According to the researchers on April 24, the number of infected machines in the botnet was just below 100,000 and the next day it reached its highest at 152,000. The number of infected hosts keeps fluctuating but has seemed to plateau at over 100,000.
Researchers have seen a new campaign dropping the Qbot banking trojan via a phishing email campaign. The campaign was discovered by the JASK Special Operations Team. The trojan is dropped via camouflaging the spam email as parts of previous conversations in order to help avoid detection. The Qbot trojan is by no means new, first appearing in 2009, despite its age it has gone through numerous updates and evolutions in order to steal financial data and banking credentials from their targets. Numerous updates have also enabled the trojan to drop additional malware, to log user keystrokes, and create a backdoor to compromised machines. According to the JASK Special Operations Team,
“The delivery mechanism for this Qbot infection was a phishing campaign where the targeted user received an email containing a link to an online document. Interestingly enough, the delivery email was actually a reply to a pre-existing email thread.”
The team of researchers published their findings in an article which further showed that the link used by the hackers contained a VBScript-based dropper script packed as a ZIP archive and designed to drop the Qbot malware payload after being launched by the victim. The trojan is then downloaded by abusing the legitimate Windows BITSAdmin utility (bitsadmin.exe). The file that is used to hide the trojan is titled “August.png” and has up until the time of writing been detected 55 times on VirusTotal.
While Christians over the globe were celebrating the Easter weekend, news of three separate data breaches surfaced. On Saturday, 20 April 2019, a popular health and fitness platform Bodybuliding.com alerted its customers of a security breach detected during February 2019 which was the direct result of a phishing email received back in July 2018. Bodybuilding.com is the world's largest fitness website, with a community of over 1,000,000 BodySpace members and more than 17,000,000 forum members, as well as over 32,000,000 orders shipped all over the world since its online shop was opened for business. Along with the announcement two separate health care companies also suffered data breaches. With regards to the health care companies, one company illustrated how an organization should deal with a breach and another the wrong way.
Returning to the Bodybuilding.com data breach, the company announced that the breach may have affected certain customer information and after investigating the incident with the help of “external forensic consultants that specialize in cyber-attacks,” Bodybuilding.com says that it “could not rule out that personal information may have been accessed.” The company further confirmed that no full debit or credit card numbers could be accessed and stolen as the company only stored the last four digits and only for customers who opted to have their cards stored with their account information. Further, no social security numbers were compromised. As a precaution the company has reset all user passwords, meaning that users would have reset their passwords when logging onto the platform again.
Combatting malware infections is often a hard and thankless task made increasingly difficult by hackers. This task is made harder when attackers change tactics. When the costs associated with infections, such as data recovery, increase more stress is placed on organizations and those that defend the organizations. The latest report by Coveware shows that ransom amounts demanded in ransomware incidents has risen approximately 90%. Not only will departments responsible for cybersecurity curse the news but financial managers as well.
Coveware's Ransomware Marketplace Report involved analysis of recent ransomware cases the security firm has investigated. Figures from the investigation showed that the average ransom organizations paid per incident during the first quarter of this year stands at 12,762 USD, compared to 6,733 USD in the final quarter of 2018. This shows that the ransom cost associated with ransomware infections has almost doubled. According to Coveware, this increase can be accredited to the emergence of more expensive and more hands-on forms of ransomware like Ryuk, Bitpaymer and Dharma. These new hands-on, termed hands-on as the attackers actively target victims, ransomware variants no longer use the spray and pray technique of sending out massed spam emails but are far more targeted in approach. This approach has placed companies and organizations in their crosshairs in order to try to extort a much larger ransom.
In December 2019 this publication covered the emergence of sextortion scammers using ransomware in a bid to increase illicit earnings. It would appear that yet again such scammers are feeling the pinch and changes tactics once more in order to make money. The scammers behind the “Aaron Smith” scam, named after the email address used to send out the scam emails, made nearly 150,000 USD in Bitcoin in the period between August 30 and October 15. These profits have taken a remarkable knock, with the operators making only 17,000 USD in the first quarter of 2019.
In an effort to prevent this downward slide from continuing the scammers have changed tactics in order to prevent spam filters from stopping their emails of reaching their potential victims. According to researchers at Cisco Talos in a recently published article, revealed how the scammers adopted a relatively simple technique in an attempt to bypass spam filters. In the email example provided in the article, one would not be able to see that the message hides something behind the normal text. On deeper analysis, the message reveals a more complex underlying code that mixes plain text letters with HTML character entities. The recipient sees only the rendering of the email client. It is when the email is viewed in such a way the technique employed by the scammers is revealed.
From recently published research by FireEye indicates that the hackers behind the Triton malware are active once more. The group rose to the public’s attention in 2017 when the malware was used to target a petrochemical plant in Saudi Arabia. In this instance, according to research conducted by Symantec, it is believed that the attack was meant to cause physical damage at the industrial site. The attack was close to causing severe damage at the facility, but Triton's activities inadvertently closed down the plant due to its manipulation of SIS systems which caused them to enter a failed safe state.
Triton, sometimes of referred to as Trisis was specifically engineered to target a specific type of industrial control system (ICS), namely Triconex safety instrumented systems (SIS) controllers developed by Schneider Electric. The malware is named after the specific safety instrumented system it targets. Triton is unusual in the sense that it hones on processes with the aim to shut them down, resulting in the tampering with safety systems which could result in damage been caused to industrial systems resulting damage to machinery. Malware designed for such a purpose is relatively rare and forms only a handful of the threats faced on the current landscape. Previously seen examples include Stuxnet and Industroyer with the latter being a highly customizable piece of malware which can be equipped to better suit the attacker’s needs. Stuxnet was seen targeting nuclear power stations while Industroyer was seen targeting more conventional power stations.
In the middle of March 2019, we covered the emergence of a new POS malware, DMSniff. The article further highlighted the threat posed SMBs and retailers posed by malware specifically designed to scrap card details from POS machines when a card is swiped. Central to this threat is one group FIN6 and their use of the Trinity to steal and later sell card details on hacker forums which roped them in millions upon millions of dollars. According to a report published by security firm FireEye, FIN6 are now deploying ransomware in where it cannot infect the target with its created POS malware.
FIN6 has been linked to numerous attacks netting in millions of dollars. Researchers at FireEye describes the group and its tactics as,
Security firm TrendMicro has discovered a new variant of the XLoader trojan is targeting Android devices by posing as a security app. Mac users are not out of the woods either as the trojan also attempts to infect iPhones and iPads through a malicious iOS profile. Previously researchers have seen Xloader posing as both Facebook and Chrome. This latest variant includes a new deployment technique and modifications to the source code.
The malware is also hosted on fake websites that mimic legitimate domains, this is done in an attempt to trick users into downloading what they believe is a legitimate and necessary security product. Researchers also found that links to the malicious websites are sent to potential victims using SMiShing, short for SMS phishing.
Hackers and cybercriminals are just as susceptible to trends to the millions upon millions of social media users. In the case of hackers, a trend is often determined by ease of use and chances of securing an easy payday rather than what the latest celebrities are promoting. More often than not security firms publish findings on the drastic increase in one type of malware or the other. In a turn of events, Kaspersky Labs published findings of how one method of distributing malware is finding less favor among hackers.
According to an article published by security firm Kaspersky, the Taiwanese tech giant ASUS is believed to have pushed the malware to hundreds of thousands of customers through its trusted automatic software update tool. This was a result of hackers compromising the company’s server and used it to push the malware to machines. The company appears to be the unwitting participant in the whole affair and the malicious file used a legitimate ASUS digital certificates to make it appear to be an authentic software update from the company. The attack by the attackers can be regarded as a textbook supply chain attack.
A supply chain attack can be defined as when a malicious actor injects malicious code into the source code of a software product without the software company been aware of the initial malicious injection. There have been many examples of these attacks through the years but perhaps one of the most infamous in recent memory was the NotPetya attacks which occurred in 2017. Hackers are drawn to this attack method as it has multiple advantages. One of the biggest advantages is the difficulty of detection as the attack requires the hacker to create a backdoor to legitimate, certified software as companies will use their security team to prevent attacks from outside the company and not during software development. Further, companies are hesitant to report such attacks to authorities as they are scared of the reputational damage that is bound to occur.
Right on the end of May 2017, we published an article detailing how researchers had discovered over 8,600 vulnerabilities in pacemakers. These vulnerabilities were found across four producers of several products defined as pacemakers and some were discovered in radio controlled devices. On March 21, 2019, the US Food and Drug Administration, known as the FDA, for short, issued a warning over a critical flaw affecting scores of Medtronic heart defibrillators that allows a nearby attacker to change the settings of a patient's cardiac device by manipulating radio communications between it and control devices. This alert further highlights the cybersecurity difficulties experienced by the community and globe regarding internet of things (IoT) devices. It is important to note that Medtronic pacemakers are not affected by the recent vulnerability discovery.
On March 19, 2019, Norwegian aluminum production giant Hydro announced that it had suffered a cyber-attack. Further, the company announced that it was a ransomware infection that affected the entire company. This can be seen as a major cybersecurity event as, since the start of 2019, there have not been major ransomware incidents that targeted companies which led to the company having to shut down operations to any degree. This attack also further illustrates how hackers using ransomware have changed tactics targeting government organizations and large companies. Earlier in March Jackson County in the US has hit by a ransomware attack which shut down local government websites, however, the potential cost of the Hydro incident will pale in comparison when loss of earnings and other factors are considered.
Recently published research shows that the infamous Mirai botnet has been upgraded to attack to new classes of Internet of Things (IoT) devices, those been smart signage TVs and wireless presentation systems. This at first glance does not appear to be a major revelation, what is worrying is how the authors of Mirai appear to have spent a lot of time and effort into these upgrades. The upgrades center around the inclusion of new exploits which have been added to older versions of the botnet. With the rise of IoT devices so did the rise of botnets, a malware type which can be defined as a collection of internet-connected devices, which may include PCs, servers, mobile devices, and importantly for Mirai’s case internet of things devices that are infected and controlled by the malware. This creates a network which can be used by a malicious actor to send email spam, engage in click fraud campaigns, and generate malicious traffic for distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks.
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