What kind of malware is Bad Rabbit?
Malware security researcher Costin Raiu from Kaspersky reported that cyber criminals responsible for releasing this ransomware have been busy setting up their infection network on hacked sites since at least July 2017. Once downloaded and executed, a malicious "install_flash_player.exe" file installs Bad Rabbit.
This ransomware encrypts various types of files (full list below). Unlike most ransomware-type viruses, however, Bad Rabbit does not append file extensions or change filenames in any other ways.
This ransomware is also designed to replace the system's Master Boot Record (MBR). Bad Rabbit then creates a text file ("Readme.txt"), placing it on the desktop and locks the computer screen after a forced reboot.
Screenshot of files encrypted by Bad Rabbit (extensions of compromised files are not amended):
More about Bad Rabbit ransomware
Bad Rabbit targets Eastern European countries. Most victims are from Russia, Ukraine, Turkey, and Bulgaria. As well as regular users, this malware also targets networks (such as private businesses and government agencies).
The list of victims includes several news agencies (including Interfax and Fontaka) in Russia, plus the Kiev subway system, Odessa airport in Ukraine, and Ukrainian Ministry of Infrastructure. In addition, Bad Rabbit is delivered with a tool that allows it to self-propagate via local networks, thereby infecting other computers.
As mentioned above, Bad Rabbit modifies the system MBR. The malware schedules a task, which runs the "C:\Windows\dispci.exe" file. This executable, together with ccc.dat driver, modifies MBR settings and forces a system reboot.
Once the system is restarted, users are no longer able to fully access their desktops - they see a lock screen that contains a ransom-demand message (identical to the message from the "Readme.txt" file). The message informs victims of the encryption and encourages them to pay a ransom to restore compromised data.
Bad Rabbit employs AES (symmetric) and RSA-2048 (asymmetric) cryptographies. Files are encrypted using the AES algorithm, which generates a unique key used to encrypt/decrypt files. The generated key is then encrypted using RSA-2048 cryptography (for more information on encryption algorithms and keys, click here).
The cost of the key cost is .05 Bitcoin (currently equivalent to ~$280). After paying the ransom, victims supposedly receive their decryption keys. Despite these threats and promises, never trust cyber criminals. These people often ignore victims, once the payments are submitted. Paying does not guarantee that your files will ever be decrypted and you may be scammed.
We strongly advise you to ignore all requests to pay. Unfortunately, there are currently no tools capable of restoring files encrypted by Bad Rabbit. Therefore, the only solution is to restore files/system from a backup.
Similarities with other ransomware
Petya and GoldenEye are not the only viruses that share similarities with Bad Rabbit. In fact, there are dozens of other that encrypt files and make ransom demands. For example, Aleta, Nemesis, BTCWare, GlobeImposter, Cerber, Purge (Globe), and many others.
As compared to Bad Rabbit, most of these viruses are not complex - very few change system settings and lock screens, however, all encrypt files and make ransom demands. In most cases, the only differences are size of ransom and type of encryption algorithm used.
Unfortunately, these viruses employ cryptographies (e.g., RSA, AES, etc.) that generate unique decryption keys for each victim. Therefore, unless the malware has certain bugs/flaws (e.g., the key is hard-coded or stored locally) or is not fully developed, restoring files manually, without involvement of developers (contacting these people is not recommended) is impossible.
For these reasons, ransomware-type viruses such as Bad Rabbit present a strong case for maintaining regular data backups. Your backups should be stored on external (unplugged) drives or private servers (e.g., Clouds).
How did ransomware infect my computer?
As mentioned above, Bad Rabbit is proliferated using fake Adobe Flash Player update, however, these viruses are also often distributed using spam emails (infectious attachments), unofficial software download sources (peer-to-peer networks, freeware download websites, free file hosting websites, etc.), and trojans.
Third party software update tools often present malicious executables as legitimate software, thereby tricking users into downloading and running malware. Trojans are the simplest ones - they merely open "backdoors" allowing other malware to infiltrate the system.
|Name||Bad Rabbit virus|
|Threat Type||Ransomware, Crypto Virus, Files locker|
|Ransom Demanding Message||Readme.txt|
|Free Decryptor Available?||No|
|Ransom Amount||0.05 BTC (it increases after 24 hours)|
|Detection Names||Avast (Win32:RansomX-gen [Ransom]), Combo Cleaner (Trojan.GenericKD.12514397), ESET-NOD32 (Win32/Diskcoder.D), Kaspersky (Trojan.Win32.Agentb.bxhn), Microsoft (Ransom:Win32/Tibbar.A), Full List Of Detections (VirusTotal)|
|Symptoms||Can't open files stored on your computer, previously functional files now have a different extension, for example my.docx.locked. A ransom demanding message is displayed on your desktop. Cyber criminals are asking to pay a ransom (usually in bitcoins) to unlock your files.|
|Distribution methods||Infected email attachments (macros), torrent websites, malicious ads.|
|Damage||All files are encrypted and cannot be opened without paying a ransom. Additional password stealing trojans and malware infections can be installed together with a ransomware infection.|
|Malware Removal (Windows)||
To eliminate possible malware infections, scan your computer with legitimate antivirus software. Our security researchers recommend using Combo Cleaner.
How to protect yourself from ransomware infections?
The main reasons for computer infections are poor knowledge and careless behavior. The key to safety is caution. Therefore, be cautious when browsing the Internet. Never open files received from suspicious email addresses - these emails should be deleted immediately, without reading.
Furthermore, download software from official sources only and, preferably, using a direct download link. Third party download/installation tools often include malicious apps and, thus, should never be used. Keep installed software up-to-date and use a legitimate anti-virus/anti-spyware suite.
Bear in mind, however, that criminals proliferate ransomware via fake update tools and pop-ups. Therefore, we strongly advise you to use implemented update features or official update tools downloaded from the developer's website.
Screenshot of a message encouraging users to pay a ransom to decrypt their compromised data:
Screenshot of Bad Rabbit ransomware text file ("Readme.txt"):
Text presented in the lock screen and text file ("Readme.txt") and on the black screen:
Oops! Your files have been encrypted.
If you see this text, your files are no longer accessible.
You might have been looking for a way to recover your files.
Don't waste your time. No one will be able to recover them without our
We guarantee that you can recover all your files safely. All you
need to do is submit the payment and get the decryption password.
Visit our web service at -
Your personal installation key#: -
If you have already got the password, please enter it below.
Screenshot of Bad Rabbit Tor (.onion) website:
The appearance of Bad Rabbit's website (GIF):
Text presented on this website:
If you access this page your computer has been encrypted. Enter the appeared personal key in the field below. If succeed, you’ll be provided with a bitcoin account to transfer payment. The current price is on the right. Once we receive your payment you’ll get a password to decrypt your data. To verify your payment and check the given passwords enter your assigned bitcoin address or your personal key. Price for decryption 0.05 BTC
Types of files targeted by Bad Rabbit ransomware:
.3ds; .7z; .accdb; .ai; .asm; .asp; .aspx; .avhd; .back; .bak; .bmp; .brw; .c; .cab; .cc; .cer; .cfg; .conf; .cpp; .crt; .cs; .ctl; .cxx; .dbf; .der; .dib; .disk; .djvu; .doc; .docx; .dwg; .eml; .fdb; .gz; .h; .hdd; .hpp; .hxx; .iso; .java; .jfif; .jpe; .jpeg; .jpg; .js; .kdbx; .key; .mail; .mdb; .msg; .nrg; .odc; .odf; .odg; .odi; .odm; .odp; .ods; .odt; .ora; .ost; .ova; .ovf; .p12; .p7b; .p7c; .pdf; .pem; .pfx; .php; .pmf; .png; .ppt; .pptx; .ps1; .pst; .pvi; .py; .pyc; .pyw; .qcow; .qcow2; .rar; .rb; .rtf; .scm; .sln; .sql; .tar; .tib; .tif; .tiff; .vb; .vbox; .vbs; .vcb; .vdi; .vfd; .vhd; .vhdx; .vmc; .vmdk; .vmsd; .vmtm; .vmx; .vsdx; .vsv; .work; .xls; .xlsx; .xml; .xvd; .zip;
Bad Rabbit ransomware removal:
Instant automatic malware removal:
Manual threat removal might be a lengthy and complicated process that requires advanced IT skills. Combo Cleaner is a professional automatic malware removal tool that is recommended to get rid of malware. Download it by clicking the button below:
Video suggesting what steps should be taken in case of a ransomware infection:
- What is Bad Rabbit virus?
- STEP 1. Reporting ransomware to authorities.
- STEP 2. Isolating the infected device.
- STEP 3. Identifying the ransomware infection.
- STEP 4. Searching for ransomware decryption tools.
- STEP 5. Restoring files with data recovery tools.
- STEP 6. Creating data backups.
If you are a victim of a ransomware attack we recommend reporting this incident to authorities. By providing information to law enforcement agencies you will help track cybercrime and potentially assist in the prosecution of the attackers. Here's a list of authorities where you should report a ransomware attack. For the complete list of local cybersecurity centers and information on why you should report ransomware attacks, read this article.
List of local authorities where ransomware attacks should be reported (choose one depending on your residence address):
- USA - Internet Crime Complaint Centre IC3
- United Kingdom - Action Fraud
- Spain - Policía Nacional
- France - Ministère de l'Intérieur
- Germany - Polizei
- Italy - Polizia di Stato
- The Netherlands - Politie
- Poland - Policja
- Portugal - Polícia Judiciária
Isolating the infected device:
Some ransomware-type infections are designed to encrypt files within external storage devices, infect them, and even spread throughout the entire local network. For this reason, it is very important to isolate the infected device (computer) as soon as possible.
Step 1: Disconnect from the internet.
The easiest way to disconnect a computer from the internet is to unplug the Ethernet cable from the motherboard, however, some devices are connected via a wireless network and for some users (especially those who are not particularly tech-savvy), disconnecting cables may seem troublesome. Therefore, you can also disconnect the system manually via Control Panel:
Navigate to the "Control Panel", click the search bar in the upper-right corner of the screen, enter "Network and Sharing Center" and select search result:
Click the "Change adapter settings" option in the upper-left corner of the window:
Right-click on each connection point and select "Disable". Once disabled, the system will no longer be connected to the internet. To re-enable the connection points, simply right-click again and select "Enable".
Step 2: Unplug all storage devices.
As mentioned above, ransomware might encrypt data and infiltrate all storage devices that are connected to the computer. For this reason, all external storage devices (flash drives, portable hard drives, etc.) should be disconnected immediately, however, we strongly advise you to eject each device before disconnecting to prevent data corruption:
Navigate to "My Computer", right-click on each connected device, and select "Eject":
Step 3: Log-out of cloud storage accounts.
Some ransomware-type might be able to hijack software that handles data stored within "the Cloud". Therefore, the data could be corrupted/encrypted. For this reason, you should log-out of all cloud storage accounts within browsers and other related software. You should also consider temporarily uninstalling the cloud-management software until the infection is completely removed.
Identify the ransomware infection:
To properly handle an infection, one must first identify it. Some ransomware infections use ransom-demand messages as an introduction (see the WALDO ransomware text file below).
This, however, is rare. In most cases, ransomware infections deliver more direct messages simply stating that data is encrypted and that victims must pay some sort of ransom. Note that ransomware-type infections typically generate messages with different file names (for example, "_readme.txt", "READ-ME.txt", "DECRYPTION_INSTRUCTIONS.txt", "DECRYPT_FILES.html", etc.). Therefore, using the name of a ransom message may seem like a good way to identify the infection. The problem is that most of these names are generic and some infections use the same names, even though the delivered messages are different and the infections themselves are unrelated. Therefore, using the message filename alone can be ineffective and even lead to permanent data loss (for example, by attempting to decrypt data using tools designed for different ransomware infections, users are likely to end up permanently damaging files and decryption will no longer be possible even with the correct tool).
Another way to identify a ransomware infection is to check the file extension, which is appended to each encrypted file. Ransomware infections are often named by the extensions they append (see files encrypted by Qewe ransomware below).
This method is only effective, however, when the appended extension is unique - many ransomware infections append a generic extension (for example, ".encrypted", ".enc", ".crypted", ".locked", etc.). In these cases, identifying ransomware by its appended extension becomes impossible.
One of the easiest and quickest ways to identify a ransomware infection is to use the ID Ransomware website. This service supports most existing ransomware infections. Victims simply upload a ransom message and/or one encrypted file (we advise you to upload both if possible).
The ransomware will be identified within seconds and you will be provided with various details, such as the name of the malware family to which the infection belongs, whether it is decryptable, and so on.
Example 1 (Qewe [Stop/Djvu] ransomware):
Example 2 (.iso [Phobos] ransomware):
If your data happens to be encrypted by ransomware that is not supported by ID Ransomware, you can always try searching the internet by using certain keywords (for example, a ransom message title, file extension, provided contact emails, crypto wallet addresses, etc.).
Search for ransomware decryption tools:
Encryption algorithms used by most ransomware-type infections are extremely sophisticated and, if the encryption is performed properly, only the developer is capable of restoring data. This is because decryption requires a specific key, which is generated during the encryption. Restoring data without the key is impossible. In most cases, cybercriminals store keys on a remote server, rather than using the infected machine as a host. Dharma (CrySis), Phobos, and other families of high-end ransomware infections are virtually flawless, and thus restoring data encrypted without the developers' involvement is simply impossible. Despite this, there are dozens of ransomware-type infections that are poorly developed and contain a number of flaws (for example, the use of identical encryption/decryption keys for each victim, keys stored locally, etc.). Therefore, always check for available decryption tools for any ransomware that infiltrates your computer.
Finding the correct decryption tool on the internet can be very frustrating. For this reason, we recommend that you use the No More Ransom Project and this is where identifying the ransomware infection is useful. The No More Ransom Project website contains a "Decryption Tools" section with a search bar. Enter the name of the identified ransomware, and all available decryptors (if there are any) will be listed.
Restore files with data recovery tools:
Depending on the situation (quality of ransomware infection, type of encryption algorithm used, etc.), restoring data with certain third-party tools might be possible. Therefore, we advise you to use the Recuva tool developed by CCleaner. This tool supports over a thousand data types (graphics, video, audio, documents, etc.) and it is very intuitive (little knowledge is necessary to recover data). In addition, the recovery feature is completely free.
Step 1: Perform a scan.
Run the Recuva application and follow the wizard. You will be prompted with several windows allowing you to choose what file types to look for, which locations should be scanned, etc. All you need to do is select the options you're looking for and start the scan. We advise you to enable the "Deep Scan" before starting, otherwise, the application's scanning capabilities will be restricted.
Wait for Recuva to complete the scan. The scanning duration depends on the volume of files (both in quantity and size) that you are scanning (for example, several hundred gigabytes could take over an hour to scan). Therefore, be patient during the scanning process. We also advise against modifying or deleting existing files, since this might interfere with the scan. If you add additional data (for example, downloading files/content) while scanning, this will prolong the process:
Step 2: Recover data.
Once the process is complete, select the folders/files you wish to restore and simply click "Recover". Note that some free space on your storage drive is necessary to restore data:
Create data backups:
Proper file management and creating backups is essential for data security. Therefore, always be very careful and think ahead.
Partition management: We recommend that you store your data in multiple partitions and avoid storing important files within the partition that contains the entire operating system. If you fall into a situation whereby you cannot boot the system and are forced to format the disk on which the operating system is installed (in most cases, this is where malware infections hide), you will lose all data stored within that drive. This is the advantage of having multiple partitions: if you have the entire storage device assigned to a single partition, you will be forced to delete everything, however, creating multiple partitions and allocating the data properly allows you to prevent such problems. You can easily format a single partition without affecting the others - therefore, one will be cleaned and the others will remain untouched, and your data will be saved. Managing partitions is quite simple and you can find all the necessary information on Microsoft's documentation web page.
Data backups: One of the most reliable backup methods is to use an external storage device and keep it unplugged. Copy your data to an external hard drive, flash (thumb) drive, SSD, HDD, or any other storage device, unplug it and store it in a dry place away from the sun and extreme temperatures. This method is, however, quite inefficient, since data backups and updates need to be made regularly. You can also use a cloud service or remote server. Here, an internet connection is required and there is always the chance of a security breach, although it's a really rare occasion.
We recommend using Microsoft OneDrive for backing up your files. OneDrive lets you store your personal files and data in the cloud, sync files across computers and mobile devices, allowing you to access and edit your files from all of your Windows devices. OneDrive lets you save, share and preview files, access download history, move, delete, and rename files, as well as create new folders, and much more.
You can back up your most important folders and files on your PC (your Desktop, Documents, and Pictures folders). Some of OneDrive’s more notable features include file versioning, which keeps older versions of files for up to 30 days. OneDrive features a recycling bin in which all of your deleted files are stored for a limited time. Deleted files are not counted as part of the user’s allocation.
The service is built using HTML5 technologies and allows you to upload files up to 300 MB via drag and drop into the web browser or up to 10 GB via the OneDrive desktop application. With OneDrive, you can download entire folders as a single ZIP file with up to 10,000 files, although it can’t exceed 15 GB per single download.
OneDrive comes with 5 GB of free storage out of the box, with an additional 100 GB, 1 TB, and 6 TB storage options available for a subscription-based fee. You can get one of these storage plans by either purchasing additional storage separately or with Office 365 subscription.
Creating a data backup:
The backup process is the same for all file types and folders. Here’s how you can back up your files using Microsoft OneDrive
Step 1: Choose the files/folders you want to backup.
Click the OneDrive cloud icon to open the OneDrive menu. While in this menu, you can customize your file backup settings.
Click Help & Settings and then select Settings from the drop-down menu.
Go to the Backup tab and click Manage backup.
In this menu, you can choose to backup the Desktop and all of the files on it, and Documents and Pictures folders, again, with all of the files in them. Click Start backup.
Now, when you add a file or folder in the Desktop and Documents and Pictures folders, they will be automatically backed up on OneDrive.
To add folders and files, not in the locations shown above, you have to add them manually.
Open File Explorer and navigate to the location of the folder/file you want to backup. Select the item, right-click it, and click Copy.
Then, navigate to OneDrive, right-click anywhere in the window and click Paste. Alternatively, you can just drag and drop a file into OneDrive. OneDrive will automatically create a backup of the folder/file.
All of the files added to the OneDrive folder are backed up in the cloud automatically. The green circle with the checkmark in it indicates that the file is available both locally and on OneDrive and that the file version is the same on both. The blue cloud icon indicates that the file has not been synced and is available only on OneDrive. The sync icon indicates that the file is currently syncing.
To access files only located on OneDrive online, go to the Help & Settings drop-down menu and select View online.
Step 2: Restore corrupted files.
OneDrive makes sure that the files stay in sync, so the version of the file on the computer is the same version on the cloud. However, if ransomware has encrypted your files, you can take advantage of OneDrive’s Version history feature that will allow you to restore the file versions prior to encryption.
Microsoft 365 has a ransomware detection feature that notifies you when your OneDrive files have been attacked and guide you through the process of restoring your files. It must be noted, however, that if you don’t have a paid Microsoft 365 subscription, you only get one detection and file recovery for free.
If your OneDrive files get deleted, corrupted, or infected by malware, you can restore your entire OneDrive to a previous state. Here’s how you can restore your entire OneDrive:
1. If you're signed in with a personal account, click the Settings cog at the top of the page. Then, click Options and select Restore your OneDrive.
If you're signed in with a work or school account, click the Settings cog at the top of the page. Then, click Restore your OneDrive.
2. On the Restore your OneDrive page, select a date from the drop-down list. Note that if you're restoring your files after automatic ransomware detection, a restore date will be selected for you.
3. After configuring all of the file restoration options, click Restore to undo all the activities you selected.
The best way to avoid damage from ransomware infections is to maintain regular up-to-date backups.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
How was my computer hacked and how did hackers encrypt my files?
Most cybercriminals use cracked software download pages, emails containing malicious links or files, malicious drive-by downloads, and similar methods to trick users into downloading and executing malware by themselves.
How to open encrypted files?
When files are encrypted by ransomware, they cannot be opened until they are decrypted.
Where should I look for free decryption tools for Bad Rabbit ransomware?
I can pay you a lot of money, can you decrypt files for me?
We do not provide a decryption service and strongly recommend not to pay third parties for data decryption. Typically, third parties offering paid decryption are scammers or act as a man-in-the-middle. Usually, it is impossible to decrypt files without the interference of the attackers unless ransomware is flawed.
Will Combo Cleaner help me remove Bad Rabbit ransomware?
Yes, Combo Cleaner will scan the operating system and remove ransomware (and other detected threats). Using antivirus software for ransomware removal prevents more damage. However, it cannot decrypt the encrypted files.