Bad Rabbit Ransomware

Also Known As: Bad Rabbit virus
Distribution: Low
Damage level: Severe

Bad Rabbit ransomware removal instructions

What is Bad Rabbit?

Bad Rabbit is a ransomware-type virus very similar to Petya and GoldenEye. This malware is distributed via legitimate websites that have been compromised and injected with malicious JavaScript code. The script redirects users to a website that displays a pop-up encouraging them to download Adobe Flash Player. Malware security researcher Costin Raiu from Kaspersky reported that cyber criminals responsible for releasing this ransomware have been busy setting up their infection network on hacked sites since at least July 2017. Once downloaded and executed, a malicious "install_flash_player.exe" file installs Bad Rabbit. This ransomware encrypts various types of files (full list below). Unlike most ransomware-type viruses, however, Bad Rabbit does not append file extensions or change filenames in any other ways. This ransomware is also designed to replace the system's Master Boot Record (MBR). Bad Rabbit then creates a text file ("Readme.txt"), placing it on the desktop and locks the computer screen after a forced reboot.

Bad Rabbit targets Eastern European countries. Most victims are from Russia, Ukraine, Turkey, and Bulgaria. As well as regular users, this malware also targets networks (such as private businesses and government agencies). The list of victims includes several news agencies (including Interfax and Fontaka) in Russia, plus the Kiev subway system, Odessa airport in Ukraine, and Ukrainian Ministry of Infrastructure. In addition, Bad Rabbit is delivered with a tool that allows it to self-propagate via local networks, thereby infecting other computers. As mentioned above, Bad Rabbit modifies the system MBR. The malware schedules a task, which runs the "C:\Windows\dispci.exe" file. This executable, together with ccc.dat driver, modifies MBR settings and forces a system reboot. Once the system is restarted, users are no longer able to fully access their desktops - they see a lock screen that contains a ransom-demand message (identical to the message from the "Readme.txt" file). The message informs victims of the encryption and encourages them to pay a ransom to restore compromised data. Bad Rabbit employs AES (symmetric) and RSA-2048 (asymmetric) cryptographies. Files are encrypted using the AES algorithm, which generates a unique key used to encrypt/decrypt files. The generated key is then encrypted using RSA-2048 cryptography (for more information on encryption algorithms and keys, click here). The cost of the key cost is .05 Bitcoin (currently equivalent to ~$280). After paying the ransom, victims supposedly receive their decryption keys. Despite these threats and promises, never trust cyber criminals. These people often ignore victims, once the payments are submitted. Paying does not guarantee that your files will ever be decrypted and you may be scammed. We strongly advise you to ignore all requests to pay. Unfortunately, there are currently no tools capable of restoring files encrypted by Bad Rabbit. Therefore, the only solution is to restore files/system from a backup.

Screenshot of a message encouraging users to pay a ransom to decrypt their compromised data:

Bad Rabbit decrypt instructions

Petya and GoldenEye are not the only viruses that share similarities with Bad Rabbit. In fact, there are dozens of other that encrypt files and make ransom demands. For example, Aleta, Nemesis, BTCWare, GlobeImposter, Cerber, Purge (Globe), and many others. As compared to Bad Rabbit, most of these viruses are not complex - very few change system settings and lock screens, however, all encrypt files and make ransom demands. In most cases, the only differences are size of ransom and type of encryption algorithm used. Unfortunately, these viruses employ cryptographies (e.g., RSA, AES, etc.) that generate unique decryption keys for each victim. Therefore, unless the malware has certain bugs/flaws (e.g., the key is hard-coded or stored locally) or is not fully developed, restoring files manually, without involvement of developers (contacting these people is not recommended) is impossible. For these reasons, ransomware-type viruses such as Bad Rabbit present a strong case for maintaining regular data backups. Your backups should be stored on external (unplugged) drives or private servers (e.g., Clouds).

How did ransomware infect my computer?

As mentioned above, Bad Rabbit is proliferated using fake Adobe Flash Player update, however, these viruses are also often distributed using spam emails (infectious attachments), unofficial software download sources (peer-to-peer networks, freeware download websites, free file hosting websites, etc.), and trojans. Spam emails are often delivered with attached MS Office documents, JavaScript scripts or other malicious files that, once opened, download and install malware. Third party software update tools often present malicious executables as legitimate software, thereby tricking users into downloading and running malware. Trojans are the simplest ones - they merely open "backdoors" allowing other malware to infiltrate the system.

Threat Summary:
NameBad Rabbit virus
Threat TypeRansomware, Crypto Virus, Files locker
SymptomsCan't open files stored on your computer, previously functional files now have a different extension, for example my.docx.locked. A ransom demanding message is displayed on your desktop. Cyber criminals are asking to pay a ransom (usually in bitcoins) to unlock your files.
Distribution methodsInfected email attachments (macros), torrent websites, malicious ads.
DamageAll files are encrypted and cannot be opened without paying a ransom. Additional password stealing trojans and malware infections can be installed together with a ransomware infection.

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How to protect yourself from ransomware infections?

The main reasons for computer infections are poor knowledge and careless behavior. The key to safety is caution. Therefore, be cautious when browsing the Internet. Never open files received from suspicious email addresses - these emails should be deleted immediately, without reading. Furthermore, download software from official sources only and, preferably, using a direct download link. Third party download/installation tools often include malicious apps and, thus, should never be used. Keep installed software up-to-date and use a legitimate anti-virus/anti-spyware suite. Bear in mind, however, that criminals proliferate ransomware via fake update tools and pop-ups. Therefore, we strongly advise you to use implemented update features or official update tools downloaded from the developer's website.

Screenshot of Bad Rabbit ransomware text file ("Readme.txt"):

Bad Rabbit text file

Text presented in the lock screen and text file ("Readme.txt"):

Oops! Your files have been encrypted.

If you see this text, your files are no longer accessible.
You might have been looking for a way to recover your files.
Don't waste your time. No one will be able to recover them without our
decryption service.
We guarantee that you can recover all your files safely. All you
need to do is submit the payment and get the decryption password.
Visit our web service at -
Your personal installation key#: -
If you have already got the password, please enter it below.
Password#1: -

Screenshot of Bad Rabbit Tor (.onion) website:

Bad Rabbit website

The appearance of Bad Rabbit's website (GIF):

Bad Rabbit pop-up gif

Text presented on this website:

If you access this page your computer has been encrypted. Enter the appeared personal key in the field below. If succeed, you’ll be provided with a bitcoin account to transfer payment. The current price is on the right. Once we receive your payment you’ll get a password to decrypt your data. To verify your payment and check the given passwords enter your assigned bitcoin address or your personal key. Price for decryption 0.05 BTC

Screenshot of files encrypted by Bad Rabbit (extensions of compromised files are not amended):

Files encrypted by Bad Rabbit

Types of files targeted by Bad Rabbit ransomware:

.3ds; .7z; .accdb; .ai; .asm; .asp; .aspx; .avhd; .back; .bak; .bmp; .brw; .c; .cab; .cc; .cer; .cfg; .conf; .cpp; .crt; .cs; .ctl; .cxx; .dbf; .der; .dib; .disk; .djvu; .doc; .docx; .dwg; .eml; .fdb; .gz; .h; .hdd; .hpp; .hxx; .iso; .java; .jfif; .jpe; .jpeg; .jpg; .js; .kdbx; .key; .mail; .mdb; .msg; .nrg; .odc; .odf; .odg; .odi; .odm; .odp; .ods; .odt; .ora; .ost; .ova; .ovf; .p12; .p7b; .p7c; .pdf; .pem; .pfx; .php; .pmf; .png; .ppt; .pptx; .ps1; .pst; .pvi; .py; .pyc; .pyw; .qcow; .qcow2; .rar; .rb; .rtf; .scm; .sln; .sql; .tar; .tib; .tif; .tiff; .vb; .vbox; .vbs; .vcb; .vdi; .vfd; .vhd; .vhdx; .vmc; .vmdk; .vmsd; .vmtm; .vmx; .vsdx; .vsv; .work; .xls; .xlsx; .xml; .xvd; .zip;

Bad Rabbit ransomware removal:

Instant automatic malware removal: Manual threat removal might be a lengthy and complicated process that requires advanced computer skills. Spyhunter is a professional automatic malware removal tool that is recommended to get rid of malware. Download it by clicking the button below:
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Quick menu:

Step 1

Windows XP and Windows 7 users: Start your computer in Safe Mode. Click Start, click Shut Down, click Restart, click OK. During your computer start process, press the F8 key on your keyboard multiple times until you see the Windows Advanced Option menu, and then select Safe Mode with Networking from the list.

Safe Mode with Networking

Video showing how to start Windows 7 in "Safe Mode with Networking":

Windows 8 users: Start Windows 8 is Safe Mode with Networking - Go to Windows 8 Start Screen, type Advanced, in the search results select Settings. Click Advanced startup options, in the opened "General PC Settings" window, select Advanced startup. Click the "Restart now" button. Your computer will now restart into the "Advanced Startup options menu". Click the "Troubleshoot" button, and then click the "Advanced options" button. In the advanced option screen, click "Startup settings". Click the "Restart" button. Your PC will restart into the Startup Settings screen. Press F5 to boot in Safe Mode with Networking.

Windows 8 Safe Mode with networking

Video showing how to start Windows 8 in "Safe Mode with Networking":

Windows 10 users: Click the Windows logo and select the Power icon. In the opened menu click "Restart" while holding "Shift" button on your keyboard. In the "choose an option" window click on the "Troubleshoot", next select "Advanced options". In the advanced options menu select "Startup Settings" and click on the "Restart" button. In the following window you should click the "F5" button on your keyboard. This will restart your operating system in safe mode with networking.

windows 10 safe mode with networking

Video showing how to start Windows 10 in "Safe Mode with Networking":

Step 2

Log in to the account infected with the Bad Rabbit virus. Start your Internet browser and download a legitimate anti-spyware program. Update the anti-spyware software and start a full system scan. Remove all entries detected.

If you cannot start your computer in Safe Mode with Networking, try performing a System Restore.

Video showing how to remove ransomware virus using "Safe Mode with Command Prompt" and "System Restore":

1. During your computer start process, press the F8 key on your keyboard multiple times until the Windows Advanced Options menu appears, and then select Safe Mode with Command Prompt from the list and press ENTER.

Boot your computer in Safe Mode with Command Prompt

2. When Command Prompt mode loads, enter the following line: cd restore and press ENTER.

system restore using command prompt type cd restore

3. Next, type this line: rstrui.exe and press ENTER.

system restore using command prompt rstrui.exe

4. In the opened window, click "Next".

restore system files and settings

5. Select one of the available Restore Points and click "Next" (this will restore your computer system to an earlier time and date, prior to the Bad Rabbit ransomware virus infiltrating your PC).

select a restore point

6. In the opened window, click "Yes".

run system restore

7. After restoring your computer to a previous date, download and scan your PC with recommended malware removal software to eliminate any remaining Bad Rabbit ransomware files.

To restore individual files encrypted by this ransomware, try using Windows Previous Versions feature. This method is only effective if the System Restore function was enabled on an infected operating system. Note that some variants of Bad Rabbit are known to remove Shadow Volume Copies of the files, so this method may not work on all computers.

To restore a file, right-click over it, go into Properties, and select the Previous Versions tab. If the relevant file has a Restore Point, select it and click the "Restore" button.

Restoring files encrypted by CryptoDefense

If you cannot start your computer in Safe Mode with Networking (or with Command Prompt), boot your computer using a rescue disk. Some variants of ransomware disable Safe Mode making its removal complicated. For this step, you require access to another computer.

To regain control of the files encrypted by Bad Rabbit, you can also try using a program called Shadow Explorer. More information on how to use this program is available here.

shadow explorer screenshot

To protect your computer from file encryption ransomware such as this, use reputable antivirus and anti-spyware programs. As an extra protection method, you can use programs called HitmanPro.Alert and EasySync CryptoMonitor, which artificially implant group policy objects into the registry to block rogue programs such as Bad Rabbit ransomware.

Note that Windows 10 Fall Creators Update includes the "Controlled Folder Access" feature that blocks ransomware attempts to encrypt your files. By default, this feature automatically protects files stored in Documents, Pictures, Videos, Music, Favorites as well as Desktop folders.

Controll Folder Access

Windows 10 users should install this update to protect their data from ransomware attacks. Here is more information on how to obtain this update and add an additional protection layer from ransomware infections.

HitmanPro.Alert CryptoGuard - detects encryption of files and neutralises any attempts without need for user-intervention:

hitmanproalert ransomware prevention application

Malwarebytes Anti-Ransomware Beta uses advanced proactive technology that monitors ransomware activity and terminates it immediately - before reaching users' files:

malwarebytes anti-ransomware

  • The best way to avoid damage from ransomware infections is to maintain regular up-to-date backups. More information on online backup solutions and data recovery software Here.

Other tools known to remove Bad Rabbit ransomware:

About the author:

Tomas Meskauskas

Tomas Meskauskas - expert security researcher, professional malware analyst.

I am passionate about computer security and technology. I have an experience of over 10 years working in various companies related to computer technical issue solving and Internet security. I have been working as an author and editor for since 2010. Follow me on Twitter and LinkedIn to stay informed about the latest online security threats. Contact Tomas Meskauskas.

PCrisk security portal is brought by a company RCS LT. Joined forces of security researchers help educate computer users about the latest online security threats. More information about the company RCS LT.

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Removal Instructions in other languages
Malware activity

Global malware activity level today:

Medium threat activity

Increased attack rate of infections detected within the last 24 hours.

QR Code
Bad Rabbit virus QR code
A QR code (Quick Response Code) is a machine-readable code which stores URLs and other information. This code can be read using a camera on a smartphone or a tablet. Scan this QR code to have an easy access removal guide of Bad Rabbit virus on your mobile device.
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