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MMM Ransomware

Also Known As: MMM virus
Damage level: Severe

What is MMM?

MMM is a ransomware-type virus discovered by malware security researcher, Michael Gillespie. Following successful infiltration, MMM encrypts stored data using RSA, AES, and HMAC cryptographies. During encryption, the virus appends filenames with the ".0x009d8a" extension (a previous variant used ".0x004867") and creates a .info file for each encrypted file.

For example, "sample.jpg" would be renamed to "sample.jpg.0x009d8a", and an additional "sample.jpg.info" file would be created.

Once the files are encrypted, MMM creates an HTML file ("RESTORE_0x009d8a_FILES.html"), placing it in every existing folder. Updated variants of this ransomware add .MMM extension to encrypted files and stores it's ransom demanding message in GET_YOUR_FILES_BACK.html file.

The HTML file contains a message informing victims of the encryption and makes ransom demands. As mentioned above, MMM uses RSA, AES and HMAC encryption algorithms.

Therefore, unique decryption keys are generated for each victim. MMM's developers store these keys on a remote server and victims are encouraged to pay a ransom of 1.2 Bitcoin (currently equivalent to ~$5150) to receive them.

It is also stated that payment must be submitted within six days after the infection, otherwise decryption will supposedly become impossible (cyber criminals are likely to permanently delete the keys). These criminals cannot be trusted. Research shows that they often ignore victims, once ransoms are paid.

Therefore, paying does not guarantee that your files will ever be decrypted and it is highly probable that you will be scammed. We strongly advise you to ignore all requests to pay or contact these people. Unfortunately, there are no tools capable of decryption of files compromised by MMM - they can only be restored from a backup.

Screenshot of a message encouraging users to pay a ransom to decrypt their compromised data:

MMM decrypt instructions

MMM is virtually identical to Nemesis, BTCWare, Aleta, Purge, and dozens of other ransomware-type viruses. As with MMM, these malware infections also encrypt data and demand ransom payments. The only major differences between ransomware-type viruses are size of ransom and type of cryptography used.

Furthermore, most of these viruses employ algorithms that generate unique decryption keys. Therefore, restoring files manually without developers' help (you are advised not to contact them) is mostly impossible.

How did ransomware infect my computer?

Ransomware-type viruses are often distributed using third party software download/sources (peer-to-peer networks, free file hosting websites, freeware download websites, etc.), spam emails (infectious attachments), fake software update tools, and trojans. Unofficial software download sources proliferate malware by presenting it as legitimate software.

Spam emails often contain malicious attachments (for example, JavaScript files, MS Office documents, etc.) designed to download/install malware. Fake software updaters infect systems by exploiting outdated software bugs/flaws.

Threat Summary:
Name MMM virus
Threat Type Ransomware, Crypto Virus, Files locker
Symptoms Can't open files stored on your computer, previously functional files now have a different extension, for example my.docx.locked. A ransom demanding message is displayed on your desktop. Cyber criminals are asking to pay a ransom (usually in bitcoins) to unlock your files.
Distribution methods Infected email attachments (macros), torrent websites, malicious ads.
Damage All files are encrypted and cannot be opened without paying a ransom. Additional password stealing trojans and malware infections can be installed together with a ransomware infection.
Malware Removal (Windows)

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How to protect yourself from ransomware infections?

To prevent ransomware infections, be very cautious when browsing the Internet. Download your software from official sources only and keep installed applications up-to-date.

Note, however, that criminals proliferate malware via fake updaters. Therefore, updating software via unofficial tools is very risky. In addition, never open files received from suspicious email addresses. Using a legitimate anti-virus/anti-spyware suite is also paramount. The key to computer safety is caution.

Text presented within MMM ransomware HTML file ("RESTORE_0x009d8a_FILES.html"):

YOUR UNIQ IDENTIFICATOR: QRM2TR67ZG
What happend with my files? All your databases corrupted .All your files has been locked ( encrypted) with Ransomware For encrypting we using strong cryptographic algorithm AES256+RSA-2048 .Do not attempt to recover the files yourself . You might corrupt your files. We also rewrite all old blocks on HDD and you don`t recover your files with Recuva and other...
YOU HAVE ONLY 6 DAYS FOR BUY YOUR DECRYPTION TOOL It is not advised to use third party tools to decrypt,if we find them you ,you will forever lose your files. How i can restore my files? Go to BTC exchange services and buy 1,2 Bitcoin 3) Send it to address 151F8ufANwCohXzteZ2mauvHLvkS8WmEFT and write us email to address unransom@mail.com for giving your key and decryption tool. In subject write your Unique ID BTC Guide: Top BTC exchange sites: LocalBitcoins (We recomend), Coinbase, BTC-E,
Online wallets: BlockchainInfo, Block.io

Pop-up displayed once the MMM ransomware is executed:

MMM ransomware displaying pop-up

Screenshot of files encrypted by MMM (".0x009d8a" extension, newer variants use ".MMM" extension):

Files encrypted by MMM

Screenshot of an updated ransom demanding message (GET_YOUR_FILES_BACK.html):

tripplem ransomware get your files back file

Text presented in this file:

TripleM (MMM) Ransomware
NOT YOUR LANGUAGE? Use Google Translate
What happened to your files?
All of your files were encrypted by a strong encryption with RSA2048
How did this happen?
Specially for your PC was generated personal RSA2048 Key, both public and private.
ALL YOUR FILES were encrypted with the public key, which has been transferred to your PC via the Internet.
Decrypting of your files is only possible with the help of the private key and decrypt program, which is on our Server
What do I do?
So,there are two ways you can choose: wait for a miracle and get your price doubled, or start obtaining BITCOIN NOW and restore your data easy way.
If you have really valuable data, your better not waste your time, because there is no other way to get your files, except payment.
Your personal ID:
Your personal wallet adress: 1MMMSA9WJvM7BjhEqy4cQ4gjUXgKKTJcK3
Your price start from 0,45 BTC , after 10 days ( 5/8/2018) he is 0,9 BTC , after 15 day he is 2 BTC. 20 day and your secret key has been deleted.
Instruction:
1)Buy Bitcoin on btc exchange sites (Paxful.com, gemini.com, Coinbase,Localbitcoins, Coinmama and another).For buy Bitcoin you need confirm your Identify.
Or buy Bitcoin instantly in your City https://coinatmradar.com/country/226/bitcoin-atm-united-states/
2)send Bitcoins to 1MMMSA9WJvM7BjhEqy4cQ4gjUXgKKTJcK3
3)Write us to email triplem@tuta.io
4)After we confirm payment - we send you decryption software and Private Key for decrypt your files.

Screenshot of MMM ransomware's HTML file after another update (now calls itself "MMM Reborn"):

MMM Ransomware updated HTML file

Text presented within this file:

NOT YOUR LANGUAGE? Use Google Translate

What happened to your files?
All of your files were encrypted by a strong encryption with RSA2048

How did this happen?
Specially for your PC was generated personal RSA2048 Key, both public and private.
ALL YOUR FILES were encrypted with the public key, which has been transferred to your PC via the Internet.
Decrypting of your files is only possible with the help of the private key and decrypt program, which is on our Server


What do I do?
So,there are two ways you can choose: wait for a miracle and get your price doubled, or start obtaining BITCOIN NOW and restore your data easy way.
If you have really valuable data, your better not waste your time, because there is no other way to get your files, except payment.

Your personal ID: [redacted 8 lowercase alphanum].[redacted 3 lowercase alphanum]
Your personal wallet adress: 18NYQLduStwnBS9XiLr8MuHvsmUx6RRQhK


Your price start from 222 BTC , after week he is 333 BTC , after 3 week he is 444 BTC. 10 January your secret key has been deleted.

Instruction:
---- Buy Bitcoin on btc exchange sites (Coinbase,Localbitcoins, Coinmama and another).For buy Bitcoin you need confirm your Identify.
---- Buy Bitcoin offline in ATM or from seller (watch hxxps://coinatmradar.com/blog/how-to-buy-bitcoins-with-bitcoin-atm/ )
2)send Bitcoins to 18NYQLduStwnBS9XiLr8MuHvsmUx6RRQhK
3)Write us to email mmm_reborn@tutamail.com
4)After we confirm payment - we send you decryption software and Private Key for decrypt your files.

MMM ransomware removal:

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Video suggesting what steps should be taken in case of a ransomware infection:

Quick menu:

Reporting ransomware to authorities:

If you are a victim of a ransomware attack we recommend reporting this incident to authorities. By providing information to law enforcement agencies you will help track cybercrime and potentially assist in the prosecution of the attackers. Here's a list of authorities where you should report a ransomware attack. For the complete list of local cybersecurity centers and information on why you should report ransomware attacks, read this article.

List of local authorities where ransomware attacks should be reported (choose one depending on your residence address):

Isolating the infected device:

Some ransomware-type infections are designed to encrypt files within external storage devices, infect them, and even spread throughout the entire local network. For this reason, it is very important to isolate the infected device (computer) as soon as possible.

Step 1: Disconnect from the internet.

The easiest way to disconnect a computer from the internet is to unplug the Ethernet cable from the motherboard, however, some devices are connected via a wireless network and for some users (especially those who are not particularly tech-savvy), disconnecting cables may seem troublesome. Therefore, you can also disconnect the system manually via Control Panel:

Navigate to the "Control Panel", click the search bar in the upper-right corner of the screen, enter "Network and Sharing Center" and select search result: Disconnecting computer from the Internet (step 1)

Click the "Change adapter settings" option in the upper-left corner of the window: Disconnecting computer from the Internet (step 2)

Right-click on each connection point and select "Disable". Once disabled, the system will no longer be connected to the internet. To re-enable the connection points, simply right-click again and select "Enable". Disconnecting computer from the Internet (step 3)

Step 2: Unplug all storage devices.

As mentioned above, ransomware might encrypt data and infiltrate all storage devices that are connected to the computer. For this reason, all external storage devices (flash drives, portable hard drives, etc.) should be disconnected immediately, however, we strongly advise you to eject each device before disconnecting to prevent data corruption:

Navigate to "My Computer", right-click on each connected device, and select "Eject": Ejecting external storage devices

Step 3: Log-out of cloud storage accounts.

Some ransomware-type might be able to hijack software that handles data stored within "the Cloud". Therefore, the data could be corrupted/encrypted. For this reason, you should log-out of all cloud storage accounts within browsers and other related software. You should also consider temporarily uninstalling the cloud-management software until the infection is completely removed.

Identify the ransomware infection:

To properly handle an infection, one must first identify it. Some ransomware infections use ransom-demand messages as an introduction (see the WALDO ransomware text file below).

Identify ransomware-type infection (step 1)

This, however, is rare. In most cases, ransomware infections deliver more direct messages simply stating that data is encrypted and that victims must pay some sort of ransom. Note that ransomware-type infections typically generate messages with different file names (for example, "_readme.txt", "READ-ME.txt", "DECRYPTION_INSTRUCTIONS.txt", "DECRYPT_FILES.html", etc.). Therefore, using the name of a ransom message may seem like a good way to identify the infection. The problem is that most of these names are generic and some infections use the same names, even though the delivered messages are different and the infections themselves are unrelated. Therefore, using the message filename alone can be ineffective and even lead to permanent data loss (for example, by attempting to decrypt data using tools designed for different ransomware infections, users are likely to end up permanently damaging files and decryption will no longer be possible even with the correct tool).

Another way to identify a ransomware infection is to check the file extension, which is appended to each encrypted file. Ransomware infections are often named by the extensions they append (see files encrypted by Qewe ransomware below).

Identify ransomware-type infection (step 2)

This method is only effective, however, when the appended extension is unique - many ransomware infections append a generic extension (for example, ".encrypted", ".enc", ".crypted", ".locked", etc.). In these cases, identifying ransomware by its appended extension becomes impossible.

One of the easiest and quickest ways to identify a ransomware infection is to use the ID Ransomware website. This service supports most existing ransomware infections. Victims simply upload a ransom message and/or one encrypted file (we advise you to upload both if possible).

Identify ransomware-type infection (step 3)

The ransomware will be identified within seconds and you will be provided with various details, such as the name of the malware family to which the infection belongs, whether it is decryptable, and so on.

Example 1 (Qewe [Stop/Djvu] ransomware):

Identify ransomware-type infection (step 4)

Example 2 (.iso [Phobos] ransomware):

Identify ransomware-type infection (step 5)

If your data happens to be encrypted by ransomware that is not supported by ID Ransomware, you can always try searching the internet by using certain keywords (for example, a ransom message title, file extension, provided contact emails, crypto wallet addresses, etc.).

Search for ransomware decryption tools:

Encryption algorithms used by most ransomware-type infections are extremely sophisticated and, if the encryption is performed properly, only the developer is capable of restoring data. This is because decryption requires a specific key, which is generated during the encryption. Restoring data without the key is impossible. In most cases, cybercriminals store keys on a remote server, rather than using the infected machine as a host. Dharma (CrySis), Phobos, and other families of high-end ransomware infections are virtually flawless, and thus restoring data encrypted without the developers' involvement is simply impossible. Despite this, there are dozens of ransomware-type infections that are poorly developed and contain a number of flaws (for example, the use of identical encryption/decryption keys for each victim, keys stored locally, etc.). Therefore, always check for available decryption tools for any ransomware that infiltrates your computer.

Finding the correct decryption tool on the internet can be very frustrating. For this reason, we recommend that you use the No More Ransom Project and this is where identifying the ransomware infection is useful. The No More Ransom Project website contains a "Decryption Tools" section with a search bar. Enter the name of the identified ransomware, and all available decryptors (if there are any) will be listed.

Searching for ransomware decryption tools in nomoreransom.org website

Restore files with data recovery tools:

Depending on the situation (quality of ransomware infection, type of encryption algorithm used, etc.), restoring data with certain third-party tools might be possible. Therefore, we advise you to use the Recuva tool developed by CCleaner. This tool supports over a thousand data types (graphics, video, audio, documents, etc.) and it is very intuitive (little knowledge is necessary to recover data). In addition, the recovery feature is completely free.

Step 1: Perform a scan.

Run the Recuva application and follow the wizard. You will be prompted with several windows allowing you to choose what file types to look for, which locations should be scanned, etc. All you need to do is select the options you're looking for and start the scan. We advise you to enable the "Deep Scan" before starting, otherwise, the application's scanning capabilities will be restricted.

Recuva data recovery tool wizard

Wait for Recuva to complete the scan. The scanning duration depends on the volume of files (both in quantity and size) that you are scanning (for example, several hundred gigabytes could take over an hour to scan). Therefore, be patient during the scanning process. We also advise against modifying or deleting existing files, since this might interfere with the scan. If you add additional data (for example, downloading files/content) while scanning, this will prolong the process:

Recuva data recovery tool scan time

Step 2: Recover data.

Once the process is complete, select the folders/files you wish to restore and simply click "Recover". Note that some free space on your storage drive is necessary to restore data:

Recuva data recovery tool recovering data

Create data backups:

Proper file management and creating backups is essential for data security. Therefore, always be very careful and think ahead.

Partition management: We recommend that you store your data in multiple partitions and avoid storing important files within the partition that contains the entire operating system. If you fall into a situation whereby you cannot boot the system and are forced to format the disk on which the operating system is installed (in most cases, this is where malware infections hide), you will lose all data stored within that drive. This is the advantage of having multiple partitions: if you have the entire storage device assigned to a single partition, you will be forced to delete everything, however, creating multiple partitions and allocating the data properly allows you to prevent such problems. You can easily format a single partition without affecting the others - therefore, one will be cleaned and the others will remain untouched, and your data will be saved. Managing partitions is quite simple and you can find all the necessary information on Microsoft's documentation web page.

Data backups: One of the most reliable backup methods is to use an external storage device and keep it unplugged. Copy your data to an external hard drive, flash (thumb) drive, SSD, HDD, or any other storage device, unplug it and store it in a dry place away from the sun and extreme temperatures. This method is, however, quite inefficient, since data backups and updates need to be made regularly. You can also use a cloud service or remote server. Here, an internet connection is required and there is always the chance of a security breach, although it's a really rare occasion.

We recommend using Microsoft OneDrive for backing up your files. OneDrive lets you store your personal files and data in the cloud, sync files across computers and mobile devices, allowing you to access and edit your files from all of your Windows devices. OneDrive lets you save, share and preview files, access download history, move, delete, and rename files, as well as create new folders, and much more.

You can back up your most important folders and files on your PC (your Desktop, Documents, and Pictures folders). Some of OneDrive’s more notable features include file versioning, which keeps older versions of files for up to 30 days. OneDrive features a recycling bin in which all of your deleted files are stored for a limited time. Deleted files are not counted as part of the user’s allocation.

The service is built using HTML5 technologies and allows you to upload files up to 300 MB via drag and drop into the web browser or up to 10 GB via the OneDrive desktop application. With OneDrive, you can download entire folders as a single ZIP file with up to 10,000 files, although it can’t exceed 15 GB per single download.

OneDrive comes with 5 GB of free storage out of the box, with an additional 100 GB, 1 TB, and 6 TB storage options available for a subscription-based fee. You can get one of these storage plans by either purchasing additional storage separately or with Office 365 subscription.

Creating a data backup:

The backup process is the same for all file types and folders. Here’s how you can back up your files using Microsoft OneDrive

Step 1: Choose the files/folders you want to backup.

Click the OneDrive icon in the taskbar

Click the OneDrive cloud icon to open the OneDrive menu. While in this menu, you can customize your file backup settings.

Select Help & Settings and click Settings

Click Help & Settings and then select Settings from the drop-down menu.

Select the Backup tab and click Manage backup

Go to the Backup tab and click Manage backup.

Select folders to backup and click Start backup

In this menu, you can choose to backup the Desktop and all of the files on it, and Documents and Pictures folders, again, with all of the files in them. Click Start backup.

Now, when you add a file or folder in the Desktop and Documents and Pictures folders, they will be automatically backed up on OneDrive.

To add folders and files, not in the locations shown above, you have to add them manually.

Select a file manually and copy it

Open File Explorer and navigate to the location of the folder/file you want to backup. Select the item, right-click it, and click Copy.

Paste the copied file in the OneDrive folder to create a backup

Then, navigate to OneDrive, right-click anywhere in the window and click Paste. Alternatively, you can just drag and drop a file into OneDrive. OneDrive will automatically create a backup of the folder/file.

File statuses in OneDrive folder

All of the files added to the OneDrive folder are backed up in the cloud automatically. The green circle with the checkmark in it indicates that the file is available both locally and on OneDrive and that the file version is the same on both. The blue cloud icon indicates that the file has not been synced and is available only on OneDrive. The sync icon indicates that the file is currently syncing.

Click Help & Settings and click View Online

To access files only located on OneDrive online, go to the Help & Settings drop-down menu and select View online.

Click the Settings cog and click Options

Step 2: Restore corrupted files.

OneDrive makes sure that the files stay in sync, so the version of the file on the computer is the same version on the cloud. However, if ransomware has encrypted your files, you can take advantage of OneDrive’s Version history feature that will allow you to restore the file versions prior to encryption.

Microsoft 365 has a ransomware detection feature that notifies you when your OneDrive files have been attacked and guide you through the process of restoring your files. It must be noted, however, that if you don’t have a paid Microsoft 365 subscription, you only get one detection and file recovery for free.

If your OneDrive files get deleted, corrupted, or infected by malware, you can restore your entire OneDrive to a previous state. Here’s how you can restore your entire OneDrive:

restore-your-onedrive

1. If you're signed in with a personal account, click the Settings cog at the top of the page. Then, click Options and select Restore your OneDrive.

If you're signed in with a work or school account,  click the Settings cog at the top of the page. Then, click Restore your OneDrive.

2. On the Restore your OneDrive page, select a date from the drop-down list. Note that if you're restoring your files after automatic ransomware detection, a restore date will be selected for you.

3. After configuring all of the file restoration options, click Restore to undo all the activities you selected.

The best way to avoid damage from ransomware infections is to maintain regular up-to-date backups.

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About the author:

Tomas Meskauskas

Tomas Meskauskas - expert security researcher, professional malware analyst.

I am passionate about computer security and technology. I have an experience of over 10 years working in various companies related to computer technical issue solving and Internet security. I have been working as an author and editor for pcrisk.com since 2010. Follow me on Twitter and LinkedIn to stay informed about the latest online security threats. Contact Tomas Meskauskas.

PCrisk security portal is brought by a company RCS LT. Joined forces of security researchers help educate computer users about the latest online security threats. More information about the company RCS LT.

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Malware activity

Global malware activity level today:

Medium threat activity

Increased attack rate of infections detected within the last 24 hours.

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MMM virus QR code
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