Remove .harma (Ouroboros) ransomware from the operating system

Also Known As: .harma (Ouroboros) virus
Distribution: Low
Damage level: Severe

.harma (Ouroboros) ransomware removal instructions

What is .harma (Ouroboros)?

Discovered by malware researcher S!Ri, .harma (Ouroboros) is a ransomware-type malicious program belonging to the Ouroboros malware family. Systems infected with this software have data encrypted and victims receive ransom demands for decryption tools/software. During the encryption process, all affected files are renamed with the ".harma" extension, which has been used by other ransomware from the Dharma family. To elaborate on how files appear following encryption, a filename like "1.jpg" would appear as "1.jpg.harma". After this process is complete, two files ("INFO.exe" and "ReadMe.txt") containing the ransom messages are stored on the desktop.

The text file informs victims that their data has been encrypted. To restore files, users are instructed to establish contact with the ransomware developers via the email addresses provided. The subject line of their messages must include their unique IDs and personal keys. The pop-up window (opened by "INFO.exe") is a more detailed ransom message, which repeats the information within "ReadMe.txt" and adds that victims can test decryption by sending one encrypted file to the cyber criminals behind .harma (Ouroboros). This test file cannot exceed 1 MB or contain valuable information (e.g. databases, backups, large excel sheets or similar). The ransom size is not stated, however, it must be paid in the Bitcoin cryptocurrency. This message also lists links to websites detailing how to and from where to acquire Bitcoins. It warns users that renaming the compromised files and attempting decryption with third party software can lead to permanent data loss. Unfortunately, in most cases of ransomware infections, decryption is impossible without the involvement of the criminals responsible, unless the malware is still in development and/or has bugs/flaws. Whatever the case, you are strongly advised against meeting the ransom demands of cyber criminals. Despite paying, victims often receive none of the promised decryption tools/software. Therefore, their files remain encrypted and they also experience significant financial loss. To prevent .harma (Ouroboros) ransomware from further encryption, it must be removed from the operating system, however, removal will not restore already affected data. The only solution is to recover files from a backup, if one was created prior to the infection and was stored in a different location.

Screenshot of a message encouraging users to pay a ransom to decrypt their compromised data:

.harma (Ouroboros) decrypt instructions (INFO.exe)

RagnarokDevos, and Nosu are some examples of other ransomware infections. These malicious programs are designed to encrypt data and demand payment for decryption. Main differences include the cryptographic algorithm used (symmetric or asymmetric) for encryption and ransom size. The latter typically ranges between three and four digit sums (in USD). Digital currencies (mainly cryptocurrencies) are preferred by cyber criminals, since these transactions are difficult/impossible to trace. To ensure data safety, you are advised to keep backups on remote servers and/or unplugged storage devices.

How did ransomware infect my computer?

Ransomware and malware are primarily spread through trojans, spam campaigns, illegal activation tools ("cracks"), fake updaters and untrusted download sources. Trojans are malware programs designed to cause chain infections (i.e. download/install additional malicious programs). Spam campaigns are used to send deceptive emails on a mass scale. The mail is usually disguised as "official", "urgent", "important" and so on. The messages have infectious files attached (or contain links leading to them). The attachments come in various formats (e.g. archive and executable files, PDF and Microsoft Office documents, JavaScript, etc.). When they are opened, the infection process starts. Software "cracking" (activation) tools can download/install malware. Fake updaters infect systems by misusing weaknesses in outdated programs or simply by installing malware rather than the updates. Untrustworthy download sources (e.g. unofficial and free file-hosting websites, Peer-to-Peer sharing networks and other third party downloaders) can offer malicious content presented as normal software and/or bundled with it.

Threat Summary:
Name .harma (Ouroboros) virus
Threat Type Ransomware, Crypto Virus, Files locker.
Encrypted Files Extension .harma
Ransom Demand Message INFO.exe and ReadMe.txt
Cyber Criminal Contact encryptor2020@protonmail.com and encryptor1996@protonmail.com
Detection Names Fortinet (MSIL/Kryptik.QBJ!tr), McAfee (Artemis!01816325E9CB), ESET-NOD32 (A Variant Of MSIL/Kryptik.QBJ), Kaspersky (Trojan.Win32.DelShad.cgn), Full List Of Detections (VirusTotal)
Symptoms Cannot open files stored on your computer, previously functional files now have a different extension (for example, my.docx.locked). A ransom demand message is displayed on your desktop. Cyber criminals demand payment of a ransom (usually in bitcoins) to unlock your files.
Additional Information The added extension (.harma) has been used by ransomware from the Dharma malware family.
Distribution methods Infected email attachments (macros), torrent websites, malicious ads.
Damage All files are encrypted and cannot be opened without paying a ransom. Additional password-stealing trojans and malware infections can be installed together with a ransomware infection.
Malware Removal (Windows)

To eliminate possible malware infections, scan your computer with legitimate antivirus software. Our security researchers recommend using Malwarebytes.
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How to protect yourself from ransomware infections

Suspicious and/or irrelevant emails should not be opened, especially those received from unknown addresses. Any attachments or links found in dubious mail must never be opened, since doing so can trigger an infection. Use official and verified download channels. All programs should be activated and updated with tools/functions provided by legitimate developers. Illegal activation tools ("cracks") and third party updaters carry a high risk of malware installation and should not be used. Have a reputable anti-virus/anti-spyware suite installed and kept updated. This software should be used for regular system scans and removal of detected/potential threats. If your computer is already infected with .harma (Ouroboros), we recommend running a scan with Malwarebytes for Windows to automatically eliminate this ransomware.

Text presented in .harma (Ouroboros) ransomware pop-up ("INFO.exe"):

Your Files Has Been Encrypted

How To Recover :
Your Data Has Been Encrypted Due The Security Problem
If You Want To Restore Your Files Send Email to Us
Before Paying You Can Send 1MB file For Decryption Test to guarantee that your Files Can Be Restored
Test File Should Not Contain Valuable Data ( Databases Large Excels , Backups )
Do Not Rename Files or Do Not Try Decrypt Files With 3rd Party Softwares , It May Damage Your Files
And Increase Decryption Price

Your ID : 1E857D00
Our Email :  encryptor2020@protonmail.com Or encryptor1996@protonmail.com
How To Buy Bitcoin :
Payment Should Be With Bitcoin
You Can learn how To Buy Bitcoin From This Links :
hxxps://localbitcoins.com/buy_bitcoins
hxxps://www.coindesk.com/information/how-can-i-buy-bitcoins

Screenshot of .harma (Ouroboros) text file ("ReadMe.txt"):

.harma (Ouroboros) ransomware text file (ReadMe.txt)

Text presented in this file:

[+] All Your Files Have Been Encrypted [+]

 [-] Do You Really Want To Restore Your Files?
 [+] Write Us To The E-Mail : encryptor1996@protonmail.com
 [+] If you did not get any response until 24 hours later,Write to this E-Mail : encryptor2020@protonmail.com
 [-] Write Your Unique-ID In The Title Of Your Message.
 [+] Unique-ID : 1E857D00
 [+] Personal Key:
 [+] Please send this to our email
 [+] Your Personal KEY: -

Screenshot of files encrypted by .harma (Ouroboros) (".harma" extension):

Files encrypted by .harma (Ouroboros) ransomware (.harma extension)

.harma (Ouroboros) ransomware removal:

Instant automatic malware removal: Manual threat removal might be a lengthy and complicated process that requires advanced computer skills. Malwarebytes is a professional automatic malware removal tool that is recommended to get rid of malware. Download it by clicking the button below:
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Quick menu:

Isolating the infected device:

Some ransomware-type infections are designed to encrypt files within external storage devices, infect them, and even spread throughout the entire local network. For this reason, it is very important to isolate the infected device (computer) as soon as possible.

Step 1: Disconnect from the internet.

The easiest way to disconnect a computer from the internet is to unplug the Ethernet cable from the motherboard, however, some devices are connected via a wireless network and for some users (especially those who are not particularly tech-savvy), disconnecting cables may seem troublesome. Therefore, you can also disconnect the system manually via Control Panel:

Navigate to the "Control Panel", click the search bar in the upper-right corner of the screen, enter "Network and Sharing Center" and select search result: Disconnecting computer from the Internet (step 1)

Click the "Change adapter settings" option in the upper-left corner of the window: Disconnecting computer from the Internet (step 2)

Right-click on each connection point and select "Disable". Once disabled, the system will no longer be connected to the internet. To re-enable the connection points, simply right-click again and select "Enable". Disconnecting computer from the Internet (step 3)

Step 2: Unplug all storage devices.

As mentioned above, ransomware might encrypt data and infiltrate all storage devices that are connected to the computer. For this reason, all external storage devices (flash drives, portable hard drives, etc.) should be disconnected immediately, however, we strongly advise you to eject each device before disconnecting to prevent data corruption:

Navigate to "My Computer", right-click on each connected device and select "Eject": Ejecting external storage devices

Step 3: Log-out of cloud storage accounts.

Some ransomware-type might be able to hijack software that handles data stored within "the Cloud". Therefore, the data could be corrupted/encrypted. For this reason, you should log-out of all cloud storage accounts within browsers and other related software. You should also consider temporarily uninstalling the cloud-management software until the infection is completely removed.

Identify the ransomware infection:

To properly handle an infection, one must first identify it. Some ransomware infections use ransom-demand messages as an introduction (see the WALDO ransomware text file below).

Identify ransomware-type infection (step 1)

This, however, is rare. In most cases, ransomware infections deliver more direct messages simply stating that data is encrypted and that victims must pay some sort of ransom. Note that ransomware-type infections typically generate messages with different file names (for example, "_readme.txt", "READ-ME.txt", "DECRYPTION_INSTRUCTIONS.txt", "DECRYPT_FILES.html", etc.). Therefore, using the name of a ransom message may seem like a good way to identify the infection. The problem is that most of these names are generic and some infections use the same names, even though the delivered messages are different and the infections themselves are unrelated. Therefore, using the message filename alone can be ineffective and even lead to permanent data loss (for example, by attempting to decrypt data using tools designed for different ransomware infections, users are likely to end up permanently damaging files and decryption will no longer be possible even with the correct tool).

Another way to identify a ransomware infection is to check the file extension, which is appended to each encrypted file. Ransomware infections are often named by the extensions they append (see files encrypted by Qewe ransomware below).

Identify ransomware-type infection (step 2)

This method is only effective, however, when the appended extension is unique - many ransomware infections append a generic extension (for example, ".encrypted", ".enc", ".crypted", ".locked", etc.). In these cases, identifying ransomware by its appended extension becomes impossible.

One of the easiest and quickest ways to identify a ransomware infection is to use the ID Ransomware website. This service supports most existing ransomware infections. Victims simply upload a ransom message and/or one encrypted file (we advise you to upload both if possible).

Identify ransomware-type infection (step 3)

The ransomware will be identified within seconds and you will be provided with various details, such as the name of the malware family to which the infection belongs, whether it is decryptable, and so on.

Example 1 (Qewe [Stop/Djvu] ransomware):

Identify ransomware-type infection (step 4)

Example 2 (.iso [Phobos] ransomware):

Identify ransomware-type infection (step 5)

If your data happens to be encrypted by a ransomware that is not supported by ID Ransomware, you can always try searching the internet by using certain keywords (for example, ransom message title, file extension, provided contact emails, cryptowallet addresses, etc.).

Search for ransomware decryption tools:

Encryption algorithms used by most ransomware-type infections are extremely sophisticated and, if the encryption is performed properly, only the developer is capable of restoring data. This is because decryption requires a specific key, which is generated during the encryption. Restoring data without the key is impossible. In most cases, cyber criminals store keys on a remote server, rather than using the infected machine as a host. Dharma (CrySis), Phobos, and other families of high-end ransomware infections are virtually flawless, and thus restoring data encrypted without the developers' involvement is simply impossible. Despite this, there are dozens of ransomware-type infections that are poorly developed and contain a number of flaws (for example, the use of identical encryption/decryption keys for each victim, keys stored locally, etc.). Therefore, always check for available decryption tools for any ransomware that infiltrates your computer.

Finding the correct decryption tool on the internet can be very frustrating. For this reason, we recommend that you use the No More Ransom Project and this is where identifying the ransomware infection is useful. The No More Ransom Project website contains a "Decryption Tools" section with a search bar. Enter the name of the identified ransomware, and all available decryptors (if there are any) will be listed.

Searching for ransomware decryption tools in nomoreransom.org website

Restore files with data recovery tools:

Depending on the situation (quality of ransomware infection, type of encryption algorithm used, etc.), restoring data with certain third-party tools might be possible. Therefore, we advise you to use EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard Pro. This tool supports over a thousand data types (graphics, video, audio, documents, etc.) and it is very intuitive (little knowledge is necessary to recover data).

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EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard Pro

By downloading any software listed on this website you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms of Use. Trial version of EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard Pro is capable of scanning drives and listing recoverable files - to restore them, you must purchase a license.

Step 1: Perform a scan.

Hover your mouse over the partition you wish to scan and select "Scan". You can also select a specific folder, or click shortcut icons to scan the Desktop or Recycle Bin: Scanning the storage drive with EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard PRO (step 1)

Wait for EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard Pro to complete the scan. The scanning duration depends on the volume of files (both in quantity and size) that you are scanning (for example, several hundreds gigabytes could take over an hour to scan). Therefore, be patient during the scanning process. We also advise against modifying or deleting existing files, since this might interfere with the scan. If you add additional data (for example, downloading files/content) while scanning, this will prolong the process: Scanning the storage drive with EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard PRO (step 2)

Step 2: Recover data.

Once the process is complete, select the folders/files you wish to restore and simply click "Recover". Note that some free space on your storage drive is necessary to restore data. Note also that the trial version of EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard Pro is only capable of scanning drives and listing recoverable files - to restore them, you must purchase a license: Recovering data with EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard Pro

Step 3: Save the scan session (optional).

We recommend that you save the scanning session once you have completed recovery, in case you decide to recover additional files later. Simply click the "Save Scan Session" icon in the upper-right corner of the screen and choose the location for the file to be saved. This will save a lot of time, since you will not need to re-scan the storage drive the next time you wish to restore something. Bear in mind, however, that data removed after the scanning session has finished will not be listed: Saving scan session in EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard Pro

Create data backups:

Proper file management and creating backups is essential for data security. Therefore, always be very careful and think ahead.

Partition management: We recommend that you store your data in multiple partitions and avoid storing important files within the partition that contains the entire operating system. If you fall into a situation whereby you cannot boot the system and are forced to format the disk on which the operating system is installed (in most cases, this is where malware infections hide), you will lose all data stored within that drive. This is the advantage of having multiple partitions: if you have the entire storage device assigned to a single partition, you will be forced to delete everything, however, creating multiple partitions and allocating the data properly allows you to prevent such problems. You can easily format a single partition without affecting the others - therefore, one will be cleaned and the others will remain untouched, and your data will be saved. Managing partitions is quite simple and you can find all necessary information on Microsoft's documentation web page.

Data backups: The most reliable backup method is to use an external storage device and keep it unplugged. Copy your data to an external hard drive, flash (thumb) drive, SSD, HDD, or any other storage device, unplug it and store it in a dry place away from sun and extreme temperatures. This method is, however, quite inefficient, since data backups and updates need to be made regularly. You can also use a cloud service or remote server. Here, an internet connection is required and there is always the chance of a security breach. Therefore, you should consider using an application to create data backups locally.

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EaseUS Todo Backup

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We recommend using the EaseUS Todo Backup application. The "Home" edition of EaseUS Todo Backup is usually more than adequate for regular users, however, the "Business" edition is more suitable for companies and large computer networks. The EaseUS Todo Backup application provides extensive data protection features. You can easily create backups, and encrypt and compress them for enhanced protection and storage saving purposes. It also allows you to set backup schedules, create bootable devices, and restore the system if a crash occurs. You can easily choose where to store the created backup: locally; uploaded to an external drive; FTP; cloud storage, or elsewhere. In summary, EaseUS Todo Backup is an all-in-one tool, which provides all features required to properly backup your data.

Creating a data backup:

The backup process is virtually identical regardless of the item (file, partition, entire system) you wish to backup. Taking the File Backup feature as an example:

Step 1: Choose which item to backup.

Click on the "Menu" icon in the upper-left corner of the screen to reveal the menu and select "File Backup": Creating data backups with EaseUS Todo Backup tool (step 1)

Select the files you want to backup. You can also enter a name and description of the backup that will be created: Creating data backups with EaseUS Todo Backup tool (step 2)

Step 2: Change the default settings.

The EaseUS Todo Backup application provides a variety of additional options that can be added/modified while creating the backup. For example, you can encrypt data (add a password), select the compression rate (how much the backup should be compressed), performance (how many system resources should be allocated), add an email notification (you receive an email once the process is complete) and so on.

To open the options window, click the "Backup options" button in the lower-left corner of the screen: Creating data backups with EaseUS Todo Backup tool (step 3)

Select the settings you want to change and click "Save". You can also reset your changes by clicking "Reset to initial settings": Creating data backups with EaseUS Todo Backup tool (step 4)

Step 3: Select the backup destination.

As mentioned above, EaseUS Todo Backup allows you to choose where backups are saved - locally or externally.

Click the "Browse..." button and select the location you want the backup to be saved: Creating data backups with EaseUS Todo Backup tool (step 5)

Step 4: Safety measures and process completion.

Depending on the location you have chosen, there are a number of measures you should or should not take. If you are uploading to an internet-connected location (for example, Cloud storage, FTP, etc.), be sure to maintain your internet connection, otherwise you will have to start again. The same applies to external storage devices - do not unplug them until the process is complete.

The progress bar displays estimated time remaining until completion. Large backups (hundreds of gigabytes) can take hours to create (depending on storage device speed, internet connection, etc.). Therefore, the application also allows you to optionally choose what the system should do (shut down, sleep or hibernate) once the process has finished: Creating data backups with EaseUS Todo Backup tool (step 6)

The best way to avoid damage from ransomware infections is to maintain regular up-to-date backups.

About the author:

Tomas Meskauskas

Tomas Meskauskas - expert security researcher, professional malware analyst.

I am passionate about computer security and technology. I have an experience of over 10 years working in various companies related to computer technical issue solving and Internet security. I have been working as an author and editor for pcrisk.com since 2010. Follow me on Twitter and LinkedIn to stay informed about the latest online security threats. Contact Tomas Meskauskas.

PCrisk security portal is brought by a company RCS LT. Joined forces of security researchers help educate computer users about the latest online security threats. More information about the company RCS LT.

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Malware activity

Global malware activity level today:

Medium threat activity

Increased attack rate of infections detected within the last 24 hours.

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