How to remove Ragnarok ransomware from the operating system

Also Known As: Ragnarok virus
Damage level: Severe

What is Ragnarok?

Discovered by Karsten Hahn, Ragnarok is malicious software classified as ransomware. It operates by encrypting the data of infected devices so that ransom demands can be made for decryption. When Ragnarok ransomware encrypts, all affected files are appended with the ".ragnarok_cry" extension.

To elaborate on how files appear following encryption, a file called "1.jpg" becomes "1.jpg.ragnarok_cry". After this process is complete, a text file ("How_To_Decrypt_My_Files.txt") is created on the desktop.

The text file contains the ransom message, which informs victims that their data has been encrypted and provides instructions about how to recover it. To recover their files, users are encouraged purchase a decryption tool from the developers of Ragnarok.

To achieve this, they must establish contact with them via the email address provided. This will enable them to receive the Bitcoin wallet address, to which they are to transfer the ransom payments. Prior to paying, victims are permitted to send a file (less than 3 MB) to test decryption.

Additionally, their messages must include the unique device ID assigned to them (which can be found in "How_To_Decrypt_My_Files.txt"). In most cases of ransomware infections, decryption is impossible without the involvement of the people behind the infection, unless the malware in question has key flaws and/or is still in development.

Regardless, you are strongly advised against communicating with and/or meeting the demands of cyber criminals. They can never be trusted. Despite paying, victims receive none of the promised decryption tools/software. Therefore, they experience permanent data loss and also significant financial loss.

Eliminating Ragnarok from the system will prevent it from further data encryption, but this will not restore already encrypted files. The only viable solution is to recover the data from a backup, if one was made before the infection and was stored in a separate location.

Screenshot of a message encouraging users to pay a ransom to decrypt their compromised data:

Ragnarok decrypt instructions (How_To_Decrypt_My_Files.txt)

All ransomware is designed to encrypt data and demand payment for decryption. DevosPRTNosu and BWNG are examples of these malicious programs, however, there are some crucial differences: cryptographic algorithm they use (symmetric or asymmetric) and ransom size.

The ransom amounts tend to vary between three and four digit sums (in USD). Cryptocurrencies are primarily used, since these transactions are difficult/impossible to trace. To protect files from data encryption and damaging infections, you are advised to keep backups on remoter servers and/or unplugged storage devices. It is best to store backups in several different locations.

How did ransomware infect my computer?

The main modes of ransomware and other malware proliferation are though trojans, spam campaigns, untrusted download channels, illegal activation tools ("cracks") and fake updaters. Trojans are malicious programs designed to cause chain infections (i.e., they download/install additional malware).

The term "spam campaign" defines the sending of deceptive emails on a large scale. These messages are usually disguised as "official", "important" and/or "urgent" mail. They have dangerous files attached to them or contain links leading to them. The attachments can be in various formats (e.g. executable and archive files, PDF and Microsoft Office documents, JavaScript, etc.).

When they are opened, the infection is initiated. Untrustworthy download sources, e.g. unofficial and free file-hosting sites, P2P sharing networks (BitTorrent, eMule, Gnutella, etc.) and other third party downloaders offer malicious content for download (presented as normal programs and/or bundled with them).

Illegal activation ("cracking") tools can download/install malware, rather than activate licensed products. Rogue updaters cause infections by exploiting flaws of outdated software and/or simply installing malware rather than the promised updates.

Threat Summary:
Name Ragnarok virus
Threat Type Ransomware, Crypto Virus, Files locker.
Encrypted Files Extension .ragnarok_cry
Ransom Demand Message How_To_Decrypt_My_Files.txt
Cyber Criminal Contact asgardmaster5@protonmail.com, ragnar0k@ctemplar.com, j.jasonm@yandex.com
Detection Names Avast (Win32:Malware-gen), BitDefender (Trojan.GenericKD.42261103), ESET-NOD32 (A Variant Of Win32/Filecoder.OAC), Kaspersky (Trojan.Win32.DelShad.ccg), Full List Of Detections (VirusTotal)
Symptoms Cannot open files stored on your computer, previously functional files now have a different extension (for example, my.docx.locked). A ransom demand message is displayed on your desktop. Cyber criminals demand payment of a ransom (usually in bitcoins) to unlock your files.
Distribution methods Infected email attachments (macros), torrent websites, malicious ads.
Damage All files are encrypted and cannot be opened without paying a ransom. Additional password-stealing trojans and malware infections can be installed together with a ransomware infection.
Malware Removal (Windows)

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How to protect yourself from ransomware infections

It is important to treat received emails with caution. Suspicious and/or irrelevant emails should not be opened, especially those received from dubious/unknown addresses. Any attachments or links present in suspect messages must never be opened, as these files can potentially cause an infection.

All downloads should be performed from official and verified download channels. Programs should be activated and updated only with tools/functions provided by legitimate developers. Illegal activation tools ("cracks") and third party updaters are high-risk and should not be used. It is paramount to have a reputable anti-virus/anti-spyware suite installed and kept up-to-date.

This software must be used for regular system scans and elimination of detected threats/issues. If your computer is already infected with Ragnarok, we recommend running a scan with Combo Cleaner Antivirus for Windows to automatically eliminate this ransomware.

Text presented in Ragnarok ransomware text file ("How_To_Decrypt_My_Files.txt"):

#what happend?

Unfortunately your files are encrypted, To decrypt your files follow the instructions

1. you need a decrypt tool so that you can decrypt all of your files
2. contact with us for our btc address if you want decrypt your files or you can do nothing just wait your files gona be deleted
3. you can provide a file which size less than 3M for us to prove that we can decrypt your files after you paid
4. it is wise to pay in the first time it wont cause you more losses


you can send your DEVICE ID to mail address below


Screenshot of files encrypted by Ragnarok (".ragnarok_cry" extension):

Files encrypted by Ragnarok ransomware (.ragnarok_cry extension)

Update January 29, 2020 - Cyber criminals have recently started spreading Ragnarok ransomware by targeting Citrix ADC servers that are vulnerable to CVE-2019-19781 exploit. Once the threat actor has infiltrated the server, a number of scripts designed to search for vulnerable Windows machines is download and executed.

Once a machine is infected, scripts inject the system with a DLL file which is designed to download and install the Ragnarok ransomware. Although a patch for the aforementioned exploit has already been released, some servers have yet to be updated and thus are vulnerable to this attack.

Note also some interesting characteristics of Ragnarok ransomware. First, this ransomware is designed to attempt to disable Windows Defender, thereby rendering the system even more vulnerable, especially if there is no third party anti-virus/anti-malware suite present.

Second, the malicious executable's code contains a number of strings that contain file paths of Unix/Linux systems. This suggests that cyber criminals might be developing cross-platform Ragnarok ransomware. Finally, Ragnarok is designed to check which languages are installed on the system. If it detects at least one of the following, the data will not be encrypted:

  • Azerbaijan
  • Belarus
  • China
  • Kazakhstan
  • Latvia
  • Russia
  • Russia
  • Turkmenistan
  • Ukraine

Update May 7, 2020 - Crooks have released an updated version of Ragnarok ransomware, which drops a slightly different ransom note and appends ".ragnarok" extension.

Screenshot of the updated Ragnarok ransomware's text file ("How_To_Decrypt_My_Files.txt"):

Updated Ragnarok ransomware ransom note (How_To_Decrypt_My_Files.txt)

Text presented within:

#what happend?

Unfortunately your files are encrypted, To decrypt your files follow the instructions

1. you need a decrypt tool so that you can decrypt all of your files
2. contact with us for our btc address if you want decrypt your files or you can do nothing just wait your files gona be deleted
3. you can provide a file which size less than 3M for us to prove that we can decrypt your files after you paid
4. it is wise to pay in the first time it wont cause you more losses

you can send your DEVICE ID to mail address below





Screenshot of files encrypted by the updated Ragnarok ransomware (".ragnarok" ransomware):

Files encrypted by updated Ragnarok ransomware (.ragnarok extension)

Update August 3, 2020 - Cyber criminals have recently released yet another variant of Ragnarok ransomware, which appends a different file extension (".rgnk") and drops a slightly different ransom note ("!!Attention_How_To_Recover_My_Files.txt").

Screenshot if this variant's ransom note:

Ragnarok ransomware ransom note (2020-08-03)

Text presented within:

#what happend?

Unfortunately your files are encrypted with rsa4096 and aes, To recover your files follow the instructions

1. you need a decrypt tool to decrypt all of your files
2. contact with us for our btc address if you want to recover your files otherwise we will disclose all data on the internet or send it to your competitor
3. 7o prove it we can decrypt your files after you paid, you can provide a file which size less than 3M and your DEVICE id for us
4. it is wise to pay as soon as it wont cause you more losses

you can send your DEVICE ID to mail address below



Screenshot of files encrypted by this variant (".rgnk" extension):

Files encrypted by Ragnarok ransomware (.rgnk extension)

Screenshot of yet another ransom note ("!!ReadMe_To_Decrypt_My_Files.txt") dropped by Ragnarok ransomware which uses ".ragnarok" extension:

Ragnarok ransomware text file (!!ReadMe_To_Decrypt_My_Files.txt)

Text presented within:

It's not late to say happy new year right? but how didn't i bring a gift as the first time we met :)

#what happend to your files?

Unfortunately your files are encrypted with rsa4096 and aes encryption,you won't decrypt your files without our tool
but don't worry,you can follow the instructions to decrypt your files

1.obviously you need a decrypt tool so that you can decrypt all of your files

2.contact with us for our btcoin address and send us your DEVICE ID after you decide to pay

3.i will reply a specific price e.g 1.0011 or 0.9099 after i received your mail including your DEVICE ID

4.i will send your personal decrypt tool only work on your own machine after i had check the ransom paystatus

5.you can provide a file less than 1M for us to prove that we can decrypt your files after you paid

6.it's wise to pay as soon as possible it wont make you more losses

the ransome: 1 btcoin for per machine,5 bitcoins for all machines

how to buy bitcoin and transfer? i think you are very good at googlesearch


Attention:if you wont pay the ransom in five days, all of your files will be made public on internet and will be deleted


Ragnarok ransomware removal:

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Video suggesting what steps should be taken in case of a ransomware infection:

Quick menu:

Reporting ransomware to authorities:

If you are a victim of a ransomware attack we recommend reporting this incident to authorities. By providing information to law enforcement agencies you will help track cybercrime and potentially assist in the prosecution of the attackers. Here's a list of authorities where you should report a ransomware attack. For the complete list of local cybersecurity centers and information on why you should report ransomware attacks, read this article.

List of local authorities where ransomware attacks should be reported (choose one depending on your residence address):

Isolating the infected device:

Some ransomware-type infections are designed to encrypt files within external storage devices, infect them, and even spread throughout the entire local network. For this reason, it is very important to isolate the infected device (computer) as soon as possible.

Step 1: Disconnect from the internet.

The easiest way to disconnect a computer from the internet is to unplug the Ethernet cable from the motherboard, however, some devices are connected via a wireless network and for some users (especially those who are not particularly tech-savvy), disconnecting cables may seem troublesome. Therefore, you can also disconnect the system manually via Control Panel:

Navigate to the "Control Panel", click the search bar in the upper-right corner of the screen, enter "Network and Sharing Center" and select search result: Disconnecting computer from the Internet (step 1)

Click the "Change adapter settings" option in the upper-left corner of the window: Disconnecting computer from the Internet (step 2)

Right-click on each connection point and select "Disable". Once disabled, the system will no longer be connected to the internet. To re-enable the connection points, simply right-click again and select "Enable". Disconnecting computer from the Internet (step 3)

Step 2: Unplug all storage devices.

As mentioned above, ransomware might encrypt data and infiltrate all storage devices that are connected to the computer. For this reason, all external storage devices (flash drives, portable hard drives, etc.) should be disconnected immediately, however, we strongly advise you to eject each device before disconnecting to prevent data corruption:

Navigate to "My Computer", right-click on each connected device, and select "Eject": Ejecting external storage devices

Step 3: Log-out of cloud storage accounts.

Some ransomware-type might be able to hijack software that handles data stored within "the Cloud". Therefore, the data could be corrupted/encrypted. For this reason, you should log-out of all cloud storage accounts within browsers and other related software. You should also consider temporarily uninstalling the cloud-management software until the infection is completely removed.

Identify the ransomware infection:

To properly handle an infection, one must first identify it. Some ransomware infections use ransom-demand messages as an introduction (see the WALDO ransomware text file below).

Identify ransomware-type infection (step 1)

This, however, is rare. In most cases, ransomware infections deliver more direct messages simply stating that data is encrypted and that victims must pay some sort of ransom. Note that ransomware-type infections typically generate messages with different file names (for example, "_readme.txt", "READ-ME.txt", "DECRYPTION_INSTRUCTIONS.txt", "DECRYPT_FILES.html", etc.). Therefore, using the name of a ransom message may seem like a good way to identify the infection. The problem is that most of these names are generic and some infections use the same names, even though the delivered messages are different and the infections themselves are unrelated. Therefore, using the message filename alone can be ineffective and even lead to permanent data loss (for example, by attempting to decrypt data using tools designed for different ransomware infections, users are likely to end up permanently damaging files and decryption will no longer be possible even with the correct tool).

Another way to identify a ransomware infection is to check the file extension, which is appended to each encrypted file. Ransomware infections are often named by the extensions they append (see files encrypted by Qewe ransomware below).

Identify ransomware-type infection (step 2)

This method is only effective, however, when the appended extension is unique - many ransomware infections append a generic extension (for example, ".encrypted", ".enc", ".crypted", ".locked", etc.). In these cases, identifying ransomware by its appended extension becomes impossible.

One of the easiest and quickest ways to identify a ransomware infection is to use the ID Ransomware website. This service supports most existing ransomware infections. Victims simply upload a ransom message and/or one encrypted file (we advise you to upload both if possible).

Identify ransomware-type infection (step 3)

The ransomware will be identified within seconds and you will be provided with various details, such as the name of the malware family to which the infection belongs, whether it is decryptable, and so on.

Example 1 (Qewe [Stop/Djvu] ransomware):

Identify ransomware-type infection (step 4)

Example 2 (.iso [Phobos] ransomware):

Identify ransomware-type infection (step 5)

If your data happens to be encrypted by ransomware that is not supported by ID Ransomware, you can always try searching the internet by using certain keywords (for example, a ransom message title, file extension, provided contact emails, crypto wallet addresses, etc.).

Search for ransomware decryption tools:

Encryption algorithms used by most ransomware-type infections are extremely sophisticated and, if the encryption is performed properly, only the developer is capable of restoring data. This is because decryption requires a specific key, which is generated during the encryption. Restoring data without the key is impossible. In most cases, cybercriminals store keys on a remote server, rather than using the infected machine as a host. Dharma (CrySis), Phobos, and other families of high-end ransomware infections are virtually flawless, and thus restoring data encrypted without the developers' involvement is simply impossible. Despite this, there are dozens of ransomware-type infections that are poorly developed and contain a number of flaws (for example, the use of identical encryption/decryption keys for each victim, keys stored locally, etc.). Therefore, always check for available decryption tools for any ransomware that infiltrates your computer.

Finding the correct decryption tool on the internet can be very frustrating. For this reason, we recommend that you use the No More Ransom Project and this is where identifying the ransomware infection is useful. The No More Ransom Project website contains a "Decryption Tools" section with a search bar. Enter the name of the identified ransomware, and all available decryptors (if there are any) will be listed.

Searching for ransomware decryption tools in nomoreransom.org website

Restore files with data recovery tools:

Depending on the situation (quality of ransomware infection, type of encryption algorithm used, etc.), restoring data with certain third-party tools might be possible. Therefore, we advise you to use the Recuva tool developed by CCleaner. This tool supports over a thousand data types (graphics, video, audio, documents, etc.) and it is very intuitive (little knowledge is necessary to recover data). In addition, the recovery feature is completely free.

Step 1: Perform a scan.

Run the Recuva application and follow the wizard. You will be prompted with several windows allowing you to choose what file types to look for, which locations should be scanned, etc. All you need to do is select the options you're looking for and start the scan. We advise you to enable the "Deep Scan" before starting, otherwise, the application's scanning capabilities will be restricted.

Recuva data recovery tool wizard

Wait for Recuva to complete the scan. The scanning duration depends on the volume of files (both in quantity and size) that you are scanning (for example, several hundred gigabytes could take over an hour to scan). Therefore, be patient during the scanning process. We also advise against modifying or deleting existing files, since this might interfere with the scan. If you add additional data (for example, downloading files/content) while scanning, this will prolong the process:

Recuva data recovery tool scan time

Step 2: Recover data.

Once the process is complete, select the folders/files you wish to restore and simply click "Recover". Note that some free space on your storage drive is necessary to restore data:

Recuva data recovery tool recovering data

Create data backups:

Proper file management and creating backups is essential for data security. Therefore, always be very careful and think ahead.

Partition management: We recommend that you store your data in multiple partitions and avoid storing important files within the partition that contains the entire operating system. If you fall into a situation whereby you cannot boot the system and are forced to format the disk on which the operating system is installed (in most cases, this is where malware infections hide), you will lose all data stored within that drive. This is the advantage of having multiple partitions: if you have the entire storage device assigned to a single partition, you will be forced to delete everything, however, creating multiple partitions and allocating the data properly allows you to prevent such problems. You can easily format a single partition without affecting the others - therefore, one will be cleaned and the others will remain untouched, and your data will be saved. Managing partitions is quite simple and you can find all the necessary information on Microsoft's documentation web page.

Data backups: One of the most reliable backup methods is to use an external storage device and keep it unplugged. Copy your data to an external hard drive, flash (thumb) drive, SSD, HDD, or any other storage device, unplug it and store it in a dry place away from the sun and extreme temperatures. This method is, however, quite inefficient, since data backups and updates need to be made regularly. You can also use a cloud service or remote server. Here, an internet connection is required and there is always the chance of a security breach, although it's a really rare occasion.

We recommend using Microsoft OneDrive for backing up your files. OneDrive lets you store your personal files and data in the cloud, sync files across computers and mobile devices, allowing you to access and edit your files from all of your Windows devices. OneDrive lets you save, share and preview files, access download history, move, delete, and rename files, as well as create new folders, and much more.

You can back up your most important folders and files on your PC (your Desktop, Documents, and Pictures folders). Some of OneDrive’s more notable features include file versioning, which keeps older versions of files for up to 30 days. OneDrive features a recycling bin in which all of your deleted files are stored for a limited time. Deleted files are not counted as part of the user’s allocation.

The service is built using HTML5 technologies and allows you to upload files up to 300 MB via drag and drop into the web browser or up to 10 GB via the OneDrive desktop application. With OneDrive, you can download entire folders as a single ZIP file with up to 10,000 files, although it can’t exceed 15 GB per single download.

OneDrive comes with 5 GB of free storage out of the box, with an additional 100 GB, 1 TB, and 6 TB storage options available for a subscription-based fee. You can get one of these storage plans by either purchasing additional storage separately or with Office 365 subscription.

Creating a data backup:

The backup process is the same for all file types and folders. Here’s how you can back up your files using Microsoft OneDrive

Step 1: Choose the files/folders you want to backup.

Click the OneDrive icon in the taskbar

Click the OneDrive cloud icon to open the OneDrive menu. While in this menu, you can customize your file backup settings.

Select Help & Settings and click Settings

Click Help & Settings and then select Settings from the drop-down menu.

Select the Backup tab and click Manage backup

Go to the Backup tab and click Manage backup.

Select folders to backup and click Start backup

In this menu, you can choose to backup the Desktop and all of the files on it, and Documents and Pictures folders, again, with all of the files in them. Click Start backup.

Now, when you add a file or folder in the Desktop and Documents and Pictures folders, they will be automatically backed up on OneDrive.

To add folders and files, not in the locations shown above, you have to add them manually.

Select a file manually and copy it

Open File Explorer and navigate to the location of the folder/file you want to backup. Select the item, right-click it, and click Copy.

Paste the copied file in the OneDrive folder to create a backup

Then, navigate to OneDrive, right-click anywhere in the window and click Paste. Alternatively, you can just drag and drop a file into OneDrive. OneDrive will automatically create a backup of the folder/file.

File statuses in OneDrive folder

All of the files added to the OneDrive folder are backed up in the cloud automatically. The green circle with the checkmark in it indicates that the file is available both locally and on OneDrive and that the file version is the same on both. The blue cloud icon indicates that the file has not been synced and is available only on OneDrive. The sync icon indicates that the file is currently syncing.

Click Help & Settings and click View Online

To access files only located on OneDrive online, go to the Help & Settings drop-down menu and select View online.

Click the Settings cog and click Options

Step 2: Restore corrupted files.

OneDrive makes sure that the files stay in sync, so the version of the file on the computer is the same version on the cloud. However, if ransomware has encrypted your files, you can take advantage of OneDrive’s Version history feature that will allow you to restore the file versions prior to encryption.

Microsoft 365 has a ransomware detection feature that notifies you when your OneDrive files have been attacked and guide you through the process of restoring your files. It must be noted, however, that if you don’t have a paid Microsoft 365 subscription, you only get one detection and file recovery for free.

If your OneDrive files get deleted, corrupted, or infected by malware, you can restore your entire OneDrive to a previous state. Here’s how you can restore your entire OneDrive:


1. If you're signed in with a personal account, click the Settings cog at the top of the page. Then, click Options and select Restore your OneDrive.

If you're signed in with a work or school account,  click the Settings cog at the top of the page. Then, click Restore your OneDrive.

2. On the Restore your OneDrive page, select a date from the drop-down list. Note that if you're restoring your files after automatic ransomware detection, a restore date will be selected for you.

3. After configuring all of the file restoration options, click Restore to undo all the activities you selected.

The best way to avoid damage from ransomware infections is to maintain regular up-to-date backups.

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About the author:

Tomas Meskauskas

Tomas Meskauskas - expert security researcher, professional malware analyst.

I am passionate about computer security and technology. I have an experience of over 10 years working in various companies related to computer technical issue solving and Internet security. I have been working as an author and editor for pcrisk.com since 2010. Follow me on Twitter and LinkedIn to stay informed about the latest online security threats. Contact Tomas Meskauskas.

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Global malware activity level today:

Medium threat activity

Increased attack rate of infections detected within the last 24 hours.

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