What is MRDC ransomware?
MRDC is a type of malware that prevents victims from using/accessing their files by encrypting them and creates the "MRDC_README.rtf" file (a ransom note). Also, MRDC renames encrypted files by replacing them with "[firstname.lastname@example.org].[random_string].MRDC".
For example, it renames a file named "1.jpg" to "[email@example.com].g2tFia1T-eQErQuE4.MRDC", "2.jpg" to "[firstname.lastname@example.org].h3yLop2R-fKFdCnI5.MRDC", and so on. MRDC belongs to the Matrix ransomware family. Its ransom note provides contact information and some additional details.
Screenshot of a message encouraging users to pay a ransom to decrypt their compromised data:
MRDC ransom note overview
As stated in the MRDC's ransom note, filеs are еnсryptеd with AES-256 and RSA-2048 cryptographic algorithms. A uniquе dесryptiоn kеy is stоrеd оn a remote sеrvеr. Victims can send the attackers up to five encrypted files before paying for a decryption key. To prove that the attackers have a decryption key, they offer to decrypt those files for free.
It is also stated that victims have to contact the attackers (send the provided ID to email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com email addresses or via the Tox Chat messaging client) within 72 hours. Otherwise, their file will be published on the darknet and sold to interested parties.
Additionally, victims are warned not to try to decrypt their files by themselves because then attackers will not be able to help to decrypt them. In conclusion, MRDC's ransom note instructs victims to contact the attackers within 72 hours from the installation of ransomware and then wait for further details.
More information about ransomware
Usually, it is impossible to regain access to files without the right decryption key or software, and cybercriminals behind ransomware attacks are the only ones who can provide it. The problem with paying the attackers a ransom is that they may not send a decryption tool. Therefore, it is not recommended to pay them.
It is possible to decrypt files without paying a ransom only when a free decryption tool is available on the Internet. Unfortunately, there is no third-party tool that could decrypt files encrypted by MRDC. As a rule, the only way to recover files without using a decryption software or key is to restore them from a backup.
Although, victims can recover files from a backup only if they have created it before ransomware attack and it has not been encrypted with the rest of the files. Another important detail is to remove ransomware from the affected machine because it may encrypt more files or infect other computers on the network.
Similarities with other ransomware variants
To summarize, ransomware encrypts files to make files inaccessible for victims and demands a ransom payment in order to regain access. The main differences between ransomware variants are the prices of decryption tools and cryptographic algorithms used to encrypt files. More ransomware examples are DEMS, Lqqw, and RZA.
In most cases, there is only one way to recover files lost after the ransomware attack for free - to restore them from a backup. For this reason, it is strongly recommended to have files backed up and keep them on a remote server (for example, Cloud) or unplugged storage device.
How did ransomware infect my computer?
Another way to distribute malware is through fake software updaters disguised as tools that are supposed to update or fix installed software. Those tools are designed to install certain malware in a regular way or infect computers by exploiting bugs or other flaws of outdated programs that users have installed on them.
Trojans are malicious programs that can be used to distribute malware too. Most Trojans are distributed using the methods described in this section. Typically, they are disguised as legitimate programs. Once installed, certain Trojans infect computers with additional malware (for example, ransomware).
Files downloaded via third-party downloaders, free file hosting or freeware download websites, Peer-to-Peer networks like torrent clients, eMule, or other sources of this kind can be malicious as well. Users install malware by downloading and executing those files. Usually, cybercriminals disguise them as regular, harmless files.
One more way to trick users into infecting computers is through software cracking tools. Cracking tools are supposed to illegally activate licensed software (to activate legitimate programs without having to pay for it). Although, they often are bundled with malware/have malicious code injected into them.
|Threat Type||Ransomware, Crypto Virus, Files locker|
|Encrypted Files Extension||.MRDC|
|Ransom Demanding Message||MRDC_README.rtf|
|Cyber Criminal Contactfirstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, Tox chat|
|Detection Names||Avast (Win32:RansomX-gen [Ransom]), Combo Cleaner (Generic.Ransom.Matrix.0C05FAEF), ESET-NOD32 (A Variant Of Win32/Filecoder.LockedFile.I), Kaspersky (HEUR:Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Agent.gen), Microsoft (Ransom:Win32/Gansom.AB!MSR), Full List Of Detections (VirusTotal)|
|Symptoms||Cannot open files stored on your computer, previously functional files now have a different extension (for example, my.docx.locked). A ransom demand message is displayed on your desktop. Cyber criminals demand payment of a ransom (usually in bitcoins) to unlock your files.|
|Distribution methods||Infected email attachments (macros), torrent websites, malicious ads.|
|Damage||All files are encrypted and cannot be opened without paying a ransom. Additional password-stealing trojans and malware infections can be installed together with a ransomware infection.|
|Malware Removal (Windows)||
To eliminate possible malware infections, scan your computer with legitimate antivirus software. Our security researchers recommend using Combo Cleaner.
How to protect yourself from ransomware infections?
Installed software must be activated with tools or implemented functions provided by its developers. The same applies to software that needs to be updated. Most of the other (third-party, unofficial) tools are malicious. Also, it is not legal to use unofficial tools (cracking tools) to activate legitimate software.
Attachments and links in irrelevant emails received from unknown, suspicious addresses should not be opened. It is very common that emails of this kind are used by cybercriminals who seek to trick recipients into infecting their computers with malware. Usually, those emails are disguised as important, official letters from legitimate companies.
Programs and files should be downloaded from official websites and through direct links. It is not recommended to use other sources (examples are provided in the previous section). Also, it is recommended to scan a computer for threats on a regular basis and do it with a reputable antivirus or anti-spyware software. If your computer is already infected with MRDC, we recommend running a scan with Combo Cleaner Antivirus for Windows to automatically eliminate this ransomware.
The appearance of "MRDC_README.rtf" file (GIF):
Text in this file:
Аll yоur vаluаblе dаtа hаs bееn еnсryptеd!
Sоrry, but wе hаvе tо infоrm yоu thаt duе tо sесurity issuеs, yоur sеrvеr wаs hасkеd. Plеаsе bе surе thаt yоur dаtа is nоt brоkеn. All yоur vаluаblе filеs wеrе еnсryptеd with strоng сryptо аlgоrithms AES-256+RSA-2048 аnd rеnаmеd. Yоu саn rеаd аbоut thеsе аlgоrithms in Gооglе. Yоur uniquе dесryptiоn kеy is sесurеly stоrеd оn оur sеrvеr аnd yоur dаtа саn bе dесryptеd fаst аnd sаfеly.
Wе саn prоvе thаt wе саn dесrypt аll yоur dаtа. Plеаsе just sеnd us 3-5 smаll еnсryptеd filеs whiсh аrе rаndоmly stоrеd оn yоur sеrvеr. Wе will dесrypt thеsе filеs аnd sеnd thеm tо yоu аs prооf. Plеаsе nоtе thаt filеs fоr frее tеst dесryptiоn shоuld nоt соntаin vаluаblе infоrmаtiоn.
As yоu knоw infоrmаtiоn is thе mоst vаluаblе rеsоurсе in thе wоrld. Thаt's why аll yоur соnfidеntiаl dаtа wаs uplоаdеd tо оur sеrvеrs. If yоu nееd prооf, just writе us аnd wе will shоw yоu thаt wе hаvе yоur filеs. If yоu will nоt stаrt а diаlоguе with us in 72 hоurs wе will bе fоrсеd tо publish yоur filеs in thе Dаrknеt. Yоur сustоmеrs аnd pаrtnеrs will bе infоrmеd аbоut thе dаtа lеаk by еmаil оr phоnе. This wаy, yоur rеputаtiоn will bе ruinеd. If yоu will nоt rеасt, wе will bе fоrсеd tо sеll thе mоst impоrtаnt infоrmаtiоn suсh аs dаtаbаsеs tо intеrеstеd pаrtiеs tо gеnеrаtе sоmе prоfit.
Plеаsе undеrstаnd thаt wе аrе just dоing оur jоb. Wе dоn't wаnt tо hаrm yоur соmpаny. Think оf this inсidеnt аs аn оppоrtunity tо imprоvе yоur sесurity. Wе аrе оpеnеd fоr diаlоguе аnd rеаdy tо hеlp yоu. Wе аrе prоfеssiоnаls, plеаsе dоn't try tо fооl us.
If yоu wаnt tо rеsоlvе this situаtiоn, plеаsе writе tо ALL оf thеsе 3 еmаil аdrеssеs:
In subjеct linе please writе уоur ID: -
Impоrtаnt! Аlsо уоu cаn usе sеcurеd LIVE TОX CHАT for fast nеgоtiаtiоn with us:
1. Cоpу tо thе сlipbоаrd оur Tоx Chаt ID:
2. Оpеn yоur brоwsеr аnd fоllоw thе link: hxxps://tox.chat/download.html
3. Dоwnlоаd uTоx Chаt Cliеnt bу clicking the buttоn:
4. Еxесutе uTоx Chаt Cliеnt еxесutаblе filе:
5. Pаstе оur Tоx Chаt ID in thе fiеld and prеss enter:
6. Write us what you think necessary!
* Wе аsking tо sеnd уоur mеssаgе tо АLL оf оur 3 еmаil аdrеssеs bесаusе fоr vаriоus rеаsоns, уоur еmаil mау nоt bе dеlivеrеd.
* Оur mеssаgе mау bе rесоgnizеd аs spаm, sо bе surе tо сhесk thе spаm fоldеr.
* If wе dо nоt rеspоnd tо уоu within 24 hоurs, writе tо us frоm аnоthеr еmаil аddrеss. Usе Gmаil, уаhоо, Hоtmаil, оr аnу оthеr wеll-knоwn еmаil sеrviсе.
* Plеаsе dоn't wаstе thе timе, it will rеsult оnlу аdditinаl dаmаgе tо уоur соmpаnу!
* Plеаsе dо nоt try tо dеcrypt thе filеs yоursеlf. Wе will nоt bе аble tо hеlp yоu if filеs will bе mоdifiеd.
Screenshot of files encrypted by MRDC (".MRDC" extension):
MRDC ransomware removal:
Instant automatic malware removal:
Manual threat removal might be a lengthy and complicated process that requires advanced computer skills. Combo Cleaner is a professional automatic malware removal tool that is recommended to get rid of malware. Download it by clicking the button below:
Video suggesting what steps should be taken in case of a ransomware infection:
- What is MRDC virus?
- STEP 1. Reporting ransomware to authorities.
- STEP 2. Isolating the infected device.
- STEP 3. Identifying the ransomware infection.
- STEP 4. Searching for ransomware decryption tools.
- STEP 5. Restoring files with data recovery tools.
- STEP 6. Creating data backups.
If you are a victim of a ransomware attack we recommend reporting this incident to authorities. By providing information to law enforcement agencies you will help track cybercrime and potentially assist in the prosecution of the attackers. Here's a list of authorities where you should report a ransomware attack. For the complete list of local cybersecurity centers and information on why you should report ransomware attacks, read this article.
List of local authorities where ransomware attacks should be reported (choose one depending on your residence address):
- USA - Internet Crime Complaint Centre IC3
- United Kingdom - Action Fraud
- Spain - Policía Nacional
- France - Ministère de l'Intérieur
- Germany - Polizei
- Italy - Polizia di Stato
- The Netherlands - Politie
- Poland - Policja
- Portugal - Polícia Judiciária
Isolating the infected device:
Some ransomware-type infections are designed to encrypt files within external storage devices, infect them, and even spread throughout the entire local network. For this reason, it is very important to isolate the infected device (computer) as soon as possible.
Step 1: Disconnect from the internet.
The easiest way to disconnect a computer from the internet is to unplug the Ethernet cable from the motherboard, however, some devices are connected via a wireless network and for some users (especially those who are not particularly tech-savvy), disconnecting cables may seem troublesome. Therefore, you can also disconnect the system manually via Control Panel:
Navigate to the "Control Panel", click the search bar in the upper-right corner of the screen, enter "Network and Sharing Center" and select search result:
Click the "Change adapter settings" option in the upper-left corner of the window:
Right-click on each connection point and select "Disable". Once disabled, the system will no longer be connected to the internet. To re-enable the connection points, simply right-click again and select "Enable".
Step 2: Unplug all storage devices.
As mentioned above, ransomware might encrypt data and infiltrate all storage devices that are connected to the computer. For this reason, all external storage devices (flash drives, portable hard drives, etc.) should be disconnected immediately, however, we strongly advise you to eject each device before disconnecting to prevent data corruption:
Navigate to "My Computer", right-click on each connected device, and select "Eject":
Step 3: Log-out of cloud storage accounts.
Some ransomware-type might be able to hijack software that handles data stored within "the Cloud". Therefore, the data could be corrupted/encrypted. For this reason, you should log-out of all cloud storage accounts within browsers and other related software. You should also consider temporarily uninstalling the cloud-management software until the infection is completely removed.
Identify the ransomware infection:
To properly handle an infection, one must first identify it. Some ransomware infections use ransom-demand messages as an introduction (see the WALDO ransomware text file below).
This, however, is rare. In most cases, ransomware infections deliver more direct messages simply stating that data is encrypted and that victims must pay some sort of ransom. Note that ransomware-type infections typically generate messages with different file names (for example, "_readme.txt", "READ-ME.txt", "DECRYPTION_INSTRUCTIONS.txt", "DECRYPT_FILES.html", etc.). Therefore, using the name of a ransom message may seem like a good way to identify the infection. The problem is that most of these names are generic and some infections use the same names, even though the delivered messages are different and the infections themselves are unrelated. Therefore, using the message filename alone can be ineffective and even lead to permanent data loss (for example, by attempting to decrypt data using tools designed for different ransomware infections, users are likely to end up permanently damaging files and decryption will no longer be possible even with the correct tool).
Another way to identify a ransomware infection is to check the file extension, which is appended to each encrypted file. Ransomware infections are often named by the extensions they append (see files encrypted by Qewe ransomware below).
This method is only effective, however, when the appended extension is unique - many ransomware infections append a generic extension (for example, ".encrypted", ".enc", ".crypted", ".locked", etc.). In these cases, identifying ransomware by its appended extension becomes impossible.
One of the easiest and quickest ways to identify a ransomware infection is to use the ID Ransomware website. This service supports most existing ransomware infections. Victims simply upload a ransom message and/or one encrypted file (we advise you to upload both if possible).
The ransomware will be identified within seconds and you will be provided with various details, such as the name of the malware family to which the infection belongs, whether it is decryptable, and so on.
Example 1 (Qewe [Stop/Djvu] ransomware):
Example 2 (.iso [Phobos] ransomware):
If your data happens to be encrypted by ransomware that is not supported by ID Ransomware, you can always try searching the internet by using certain keywords (for example, a ransom message title, file extension, provided contact emails, crypto wallet addresses, etc.).
Search for ransomware decryption tools:
Encryption algorithms used by most ransomware-type infections are extremely sophisticated and, if the encryption is performed properly, only the developer is capable of restoring data. This is because decryption requires a specific key, which is generated during the encryption. Restoring data without the key is impossible. In most cases, cybercriminals store keys on a remote server, rather than using the infected machine as a host. Dharma (CrySis), Phobos, and other families of high-end ransomware infections are virtually flawless, and thus restoring data encrypted without the developers' involvement is simply impossible. Despite this, there are dozens of ransomware-type infections that are poorly developed and contain a number of flaws (for example, the use of identical encryption/decryption keys for each victim, keys stored locally, etc.). Therefore, always check for available decryption tools for any ransomware that infiltrates your computer.
Finding the correct decryption tool on the internet can be very frustrating. For this reason, we recommend that you use the No More Ransom Project and this is where identifying the ransomware infection is useful. The No More Ransom Project website contains a "Decryption Tools" section with a search bar. Enter the name of the identified ransomware, and all available decryptors (if there are any) will be listed.
Restore files with data recovery tools:
Depending on the situation (quality of ransomware infection, type of encryption algorithm used, etc.), restoring data with certain third-party tools might be possible. Therefore, we advise you to use the Recuva tool developed by CCleaner. This tool supports over a thousand data types (graphics, video, audio, documents, etc.) and it is very intuitive (little knowledge is necessary to recover data). In addition, the recovery feature is completely free.
Step 1: Perform a scan.
Run the Recuva application and follow the wizard. You will be prompted with several windows allowing you to choose what file types to look for, which locations should be scanned, etc. All you need to do is select the options you're looking for and start the scan. We advise you to enable the "Deep Scan" before starting, otherwise, the application's scanning capabilities will be restricted.
Wait for Recuva to complete the scan. The scanning duration depends on the volume of files (both in quantity and size) that you are scanning (for example, several hundred gigabytes could take over an hour to scan). Therefore, be patient during the scanning process. We also advise against modifying or deleting existing files, since this might interfere with the scan. If you add additional data (for example, downloading files/content) while scanning, this will prolong the process:
Step 2: Recover data.
Once the process is complete, select the folders/files you wish to restore and simply click "Recover". Note that some free space on your storage drive is necessary to restore data:
Create data backups:
Proper file management and creating backups is essential for data security. Therefore, always be very careful and think ahead.
Partition management: We recommend that you store your data in multiple partitions and avoid storing important files within the partition that contains the entire operating system. If you fall into a situation whereby you cannot boot the system and are forced to format the disk on which the operating system is installed (in most cases, this is where malware infections hide), you will lose all data stored within that drive. This is the advantage of having multiple partitions: if you have the entire storage device assigned to a single partition, you will be forced to delete everything, however, creating multiple partitions and allocating the data properly allows you to prevent such problems. You can easily format a single partition without affecting the others - therefore, one will be cleaned and the others will remain untouched, and your data will be saved. Managing partitions is quite simple and you can find all the necessary information on Microsoft's documentation web page.
Data backups: One of the most reliable backup methods is to use an external storage device and keep it unplugged. Copy your data to an external hard drive, flash (thumb) drive, SSD, HDD, or any other storage device, unplug it and store it in a dry place away from the sun and extreme temperatures. This method is, however, quite inefficient, since data backups and updates need to be made regularly. You can also use a cloud service or remote server. Here, an internet connection is required and there is always the chance of a security breach, although it's a really rare occasion.
We recommend using Microsoft OneDrive for backing up your files. OneDrive lets you store your personal files and data in the cloud, sync files across computers and mobile devices, allowing you to access and edit your files from all of your Windows devices. OneDrive lets you save, share and preview files, access download history, move, delete, and rename files, as well as create new folders, and much more.
You can back up your most important folders and files on your PC (your Desktop, Documents, and Pictures folders). Some of OneDrive’s more notable features include file versioning, which keeps older versions of files for up to 30 days. OneDrive features a recycling bin in which all of your deleted files are stored for a limited time. Deleted files are not counted as part of the user’s allocation.
The service is built using HTML5 technologies and allows you to upload files up to 300 MB via drag and drop into the web browser or up to 10 GB via the OneDrive desktop application. With OneDrive, you can download entire folders as a single ZIP file with up to 10,000 files, although it can’t exceed 15 GB per single download.
OneDrive comes with 5 GB of free storage out of the box, with an additional 100 GB, 1 TB, and 6 TB storage options available for a subscription-based fee. You can get one of these storage plans by either purchasing additional storage separately or with Office 365 subscription.
Creating a data backup:
The backup process is the same for all file types and folders. Here’s how you can back up your files using Microsoft OneDrive
Step 1: Choose the files/folders you want to backup.
Click the OneDrive cloud icon to open the OneDrive menu. While in this menu, you can customize your file backup settings.
Click Help & Settings and then select Settings from the drop-down menu.
Go to the Backup tab and click Manage backup.
In this menu, you can choose to backup the Desktop and all of the files on it, and Documents and Pictures folders, again, with all of the files in them. Click Start backup.
Now, when you add a file or folder in the Desktop and Documents and Pictures folders, they will be automatically backed up on OneDrive.
To add folders and files, not in the locations shown above, you have to add them manually.
Open File Explorer and navigate to the location of the folder/file you want to backup. Select the item, right-click it, and click Copy.
Then, navigate to OneDrive, right-click anywhere in the window and click Paste. Alternatively, you can just drag and drop a file into OneDrive. OneDrive will automatically create a backup of the folder/file.
All of the files added to the OneDrive folder are backed up in the cloud automatically. The green circle with the checkmark in it indicates that the file is available both locally and on OneDrive and that the file version is the same on both. The blue cloud icon indicates that the file has not been synced and is available only on OneDrive. The sync icon indicates that the file is currently syncing.
To access files only located on OneDrive online, go to the Help & Settings drop-down menu and select View online.
Step 2: Restore corrupted files.
OneDrive makes sure that the files stay in sync, so the version of the file on the computer is the same version on the cloud. However, if ransomware has encrypted your files, you can take advantage of OneDrive’s Version history feature that will allow you to restore the file versions prior to encryption.
Microsoft 365 has a ransomware detection feature that notifies you when your OneDrive files have been attacked and guide you through the process of restoring your files. It must be noted, however, that if you don’t have a paid Microsoft 365 subscription, you only get one detection and file recovery for free.
If your OneDrive files get deleted, corrupted, or infected by malware, you can restore your entire OneDrive to a previous state. Here’s how you can restore your entire OneDrive:
1. If you're signed in with a personal account, click the Settings cog at the top of the page. Then, click Options and select Restore your OneDrive.
If you're signed in with a work or school account, click the Settings cog at the top of the page. Then, click Restore your OneDrive.
2. On the Restore your OneDrive page, select a date from the drop-down list. Note that if you're restoring your files after automatic ransomware detection, a restore date will be selected for you.
3. After configuring all of the file restoration options, click Restore to undo all the activities you selected.
The best way to avoid damage from ransomware infections is to maintain regular up-to-date backups.