What is Maze?
Discovered by Jérôme Segura, Maze is a ransomware-type program. People who have computers infected with Maze cannot access their files/data - the program encrypts files and keeps them in that state until a ransom is paid. Furthermore, it renames all encrypted files by adding a random extension to the filenames.
For example, "1.jpg" might become "1.jpg.ILnnD", and so on. Maze also changes the desktop wallpaper and creates the "DECRYPT-FILES.html" file, a ransom message with instructions about how to decrypt files.
Screenshot of files encrypted by Maze ransomware:
Maze ransomware overview
The wallpaper states that Maze encrypts files with RSA-2048 and ChaCha algorithms, and the only way to restore locked/encrypted files is to purchase a decryption tool. Files can apparently be restored by following the instructions in the "DECRYPT-FILES.HTML" file.
The message states that these people must first be contacted to purchase this tool and a unique key. This can be done by sending an email to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com. These two email addresses can also be used for a 'test decryption' - victims can send one file to them and they will decrypt and return it free of charge.
To proceed with decryption, victims must send an entire sequence of characters, which can be found at the bottom of the "DECRYPT-FILES.HTML" ransom message (under "Base64"). Maze's developers will then provide all further instructions. Despite this, do not trust these and other other cyber criminals.
Typically, they cooperate only until they are paid (a decryption tool/key is purchased), and then they ignore victims and send no decryption tools/keys.
Encryptions caused by ransomware-type programs are usually impossible to decrypt without the correct tools held only by the ransomware developers. The best, free option in such cases is to restore all files using a backup created beforehand.
Maze is similar to many other ransomware-type programs including, for example, 2k19sys, Virus Hermes, and Mogera. They encrypt data and force victims to pay a ransom/buy a decryption tool. The main differences between these programs are cryptography algorithms used to encrypt files and cost of decryption.
Despite any similarities or differences, most ransomware-type programs encrypt files with strong algorithms. Therefore, encoded files cannot be decrypted without tools held only by ransomware developers. To avoid data and financial loss, maintain data backups and keep them stored on an unplugged storage device or remote server (for example, Cloud).
How did ransomware infect my computer?
Typically, malicious software is distributed through spam campaigns, trojans, untrustworthy software download sources, third party activation tools and unofficial software updaters. Spam campaigns can be used to proliferate viruses through files (or links leading to them) attached to emails.
To achieve this, however, the trojan must already be installed. Furthermore, cyber criminals often upload their malicious files onto untrustworthy, unofficial software download websites, freeware download websites, free file hosting pages, Peer-to-Peer networks such as torrent clients, eMule and so on.
They disguise malicious files as harmless and legitimate. People who download and open them cause installation of various high-risk viruses. Another way to distribute malware is through fake/unofficial software updaters. If used, they often infect systems rather than installing updates, or they exploit bugs/flaws of the outdated software.
People who activate software with 'cracking' tools can be tricked into installing malware. Cyber criminals often use these tools to proliferate viruses. Rather than activating software, these tools download and install malicious programs.
|Threat Type||Ransomware, Crypto Virus, Files locker|
|Encrypted Files Extension||Random string.|
|Ransom Demanding Message||Desktop wallpaper, DECRYPT-FILES.html|
|Free Decryptor Available?||Yes (more information)|
|Cyber Criminal Contactfirstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com|
|Detection Names||Avast (Win32:Adware-gen [Adw]), BitDefender (Gen:Variant.Adware.Kazy.734873), ESET-NOD32 (a variant of Win32/Kryptik.GTLN), Kaspersky (Trojan-Ransom.Win32.Gen.qqa), Full List Of Detections (VirusTotal)|
|Symptoms||Cannot open files stored on your computer, previously functional files now have a different extension (for example, my.docx.locked). A ransom demand message is displayed on your desktop. Cyber criminals demand payment of a ransom (usually in bitcoins) to unlock your files.|
|Distribution methods||Infected email attachments (macros), torrent websites, malicious ads.|
|Damage||All files are encrypted and cannot be opened without paying a ransom. Additional password-stealing trojans and malware infections can be installed together with a ransomware infection.|
|Malware Removal (Windows)||
To eliminate possible malware infections, scan your computer with legitimate antivirus software. Our security researchers recommend using Combo Cleaner.
How to protect yourself from ransomware infections?
Do not download or install software using third party software downloaders/installers, from dubious pages, and so on. The safest way to download is using official and trustworthy websites, and direct download links. Update installed software using implemented functions or tools provided by official software developers.
Do not open files that are attached to emails received from unknown/suspicious email addresses, especially if these emails are irrelevant. Software should be activated properly, and not with 'cracking' tools that supposedly bypass activation free of charge. It is illegal to use these tools.
Additionally, have reputable anti-spyware or anti-virus software installed and keep it enabled at all times. If your computer is already infected with Maze, we recommend running a scan with Combo Cleaner Antivirus for Windows to automatically eliminate this ransomware.
Screenshot of Maze HTML file:
Text presented in the HTML file:
Attention! Your documents, photos, databases, and other important files have been encrypted!
What is going on?
Your files have been encrypted using strong reliable algorithms RSA-2048 and ChaCha20 with an unique private key for your system
You can read more about this cryptosystem here: hxxps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSA_(cryptosystem)
The only way to recover (decrypt) your files is to buy decryptor with the unique private key
Attention! Only we can recover your files! If someone tell you that he can do this, kindly ask him to proof!
By us you can decrypt one of your files for free as a proof of work that we have the method to decrypt the rest of your data.
In order to either buy the private key or make test decryption contact us via email:
Main e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Reserve e-mail: email@example.com
Remember to hurry up as email address may not be available for very long as soon as law enforcements of different countries always trying to seize emails used in ransom companies
If you are willing to pay but you are not sure knock us and we will save your e-mail address. In case the listed addresses are seized we will write you from the new one
Below you will see a big base64 blob, you will need to email us and copy this blob to us.
you can click on it, and it will be copied into the clipboard.
If you have troubles copying it, just send us the file you are currently reading, as an attachment.
Appearance of Maze ransomware (GIF):
Screenshot of Maze desktop wallpaper:
Update May 15, 2020 - The developers of Maze ransomware have recently started looking for affiliates and offering Maze as ransomware-as-a-service (RaaS).
This business model is basically based on the work distribution - the affiliate is responsible for malware distribution, while the developer provides affiliates with necessary tools to perform malicious actions. The revenue is distributed either in percentage (the developers get a certain share) or either affiliate pays a subscription fee.
Screenshot of Maze ransomware's admin panel:
Update June 10, 2020 - The developers of Maze ransomware continue to leak data stolen from victims that do not agree to pay. They threaten huge companies as the profits are way higher than targeting a regular home user. However, what's worth mentioning is that Maze started cooperating with two other ransomware - LockBit and Ragnar Locker.
This created a so-called "Maze Cartel". The website designed to leak Maze victims' now also contains files and other information stolen by both LockBit and Ragnar Locker infections.
Update February 10, 2020 - The master decryption keys for Maze, Egregor and Sekhmet ransomware have been recently leaked. This allowed Emsisoft to release a decryption tool that allows victims to restore data for free. You can download this decryption tool and find its user manual in Emsisoft's website.
Screenshot of Emsisoft's decryptor for Maze/Egregor/Sekhmet ransomware:
Maze ransomware removal:
Instant automatic malware removal:
Manual threat removal might be a lengthy and complicated process that requires advanced IT skills. Combo Cleaner is a professional automatic malware removal tool that is recommended to get rid of malware. Download it by clicking the button below:
Video suggesting what steps should be taken in case of a ransomware infection:
- What is Maze virus?
- STEP 1. Reporting ransomware to authorities.
- STEP 2. Isolating the infected device.
- STEP 3. Identifying the ransomware infection.
- STEP 4. Searching for ransomware decryption tools.
- STEP 5. Restoring files with data recovery tools.
- STEP 6. Creating data backups.
If you are a victim of a ransomware attack we recommend reporting this incident to authorities. By providing information to law enforcement agencies you will help track cybercrime and potentially assist in the prosecution of the attackers. Here's a list of authorities where you should report a ransomware attack. For the complete list of local cybersecurity centers and information on why you should report ransomware attacks, read this article.
List of local authorities where ransomware attacks should be reported (choose one depending on your residence address):
- USA - Internet Crime Complaint Centre IC3
- United Kingdom - Action Fraud
- Spain - Policía Nacional
- France - Ministère de l'Intérieur
- Germany - Polizei
- Italy - Polizia di Stato
- The Netherlands - Politie
- Poland - Policja
- Portugal - Polícia Judiciária
Isolating the infected device:
Some ransomware-type infections are designed to encrypt files within external storage devices, infect them, and even spread throughout the entire local network. For this reason, it is very important to isolate the infected device (computer) as soon as possible.
Step 1: Disconnect from the internet.
The easiest way to disconnect a computer from the internet is to unplug the Ethernet cable from the motherboard, however, some devices are connected via a wireless network and for some users (especially those who are not particularly tech-savvy), disconnecting cables may seem troublesome. Therefore, you can also disconnect the system manually via Control Panel:
Navigate to the "Control Panel", click the search bar in the upper-right corner of the screen, enter "Network and Sharing Center" and select search result:
Click the "Change adapter settings" option in the upper-left corner of the window:
Right-click on each connection point and select "Disable". Once disabled, the system will no longer be connected to the internet. To re-enable the connection points, simply right-click again and select "Enable".
Step 2: Unplug all storage devices.
As mentioned above, ransomware might encrypt data and infiltrate all storage devices that are connected to the computer. For this reason, all external storage devices (flash drives, portable hard drives, etc.) should be disconnected immediately, however, we strongly advise you to eject each device before disconnecting to prevent data corruption:
Navigate to "My Computer", right-click on each connected device, and select "Eject":
Step 3: Log-out of cloud storage accounts.
Some ransomware-type might be able to hijack software that handles data stored within "the Cloud". Therefore, the data could be corrupted/encrypted. For this reason, you should log-out of all cloud storage accounts within browsers and other related software. You should also consider temporarily uninstalling the cloud-management software until the infection is completely removed.
Identify the ransomware infection:
To properly handle an infection, one must first identify it. Some ransomware infections use ransom-demand messages as an introduction (see the WALDO ransomware text file below).
This, however, is rare. In most cases, ransomware infections deliver more direct messages simply stating that data is encrypted and that victims must pay some sort of ransom. Note that ransomware-type infections typically generate messages with different file names (for example, "_readme.txt", "READ-ME.txt", "DECRYPTION_INSTRUCTIONS.txt", "DECRYPT_FILES.html", etc.). Therefore, using the name of a ransom message may seem like a good way to identify the infection. The problem is that most of these names are generic and some infections use the same names, even though the delivered messages are different and the infections themselves are unrelated. Therefore, using the message filename alone can be ineffective and even lead to permanent data loss (for example, by attempting to decrypt data using tools designed for different ransomware infections, users are likely to end up permanently damaging files and decryption will no longer be possible even with the correct tool).
Another way to identify a ransomware infection is to check the file extension, which is appended to each encrypted file. Ransomware infections are often named by the extensions they append (see files encrypted by Qewe ransomware below).
This method is only effective, however, when the appended extension is unique - many ransomware infections append a generic extension (for example, ".encrypted", ".enc", ".crypted", ".locked", etc.). In these cases, identifying ransomware by its appended extension becomes impossible.
One of the easiest and quickest ways to identify a ransomware infection is to use the ID Ransomware website. This service supports most existing ransomware infections. Victims simply upload a ransom message and/or one encrypted file (we advise you to upload both if possible).
The ransomware will be identified within seconds and you will be provided with various details, such as the name of the malware family to which the infection belongs, whether it is decryptable, and so on.
Example 1 (Qewe [Stop/Djvu] ransomware):
Example 2 (.iso [Phobos] ransomware):
If your data happens to be encrypted by ransomware that is not supported by ID Ransomware, you can always try searching the internet by using certain keywords (for example, a ransom message title, file extension, provided contact emails, crypto wallet addresses, etc.).
Search for ransomware decryption tools:
Encryption algorithms used by most ransomware-type infections are extremely sophisticated and, if the encryption is performed properly, only the developer is capable of restoring data. This is because decryption requires a specific key, which is generated during the encryption. Restoring data without the key is impossible. In most cases, cybercriminals store keys on a remote server, rather than using the infected machine as a host. Dharma (CrySis), Phobos, and other families of high-end ransomware infections are virtually flawless, and thus restoring data encrypted without the developers' involvement is simply impossible. Despite this, there are dozens of ransomware-type infections that are poorly developed and contain a number of flaws (for example, the use of identical encryption/decryption keys for each victim, keys stored locally, etc.). Therefore, always check for available decryption tools for any ransomware that infiltrates your computer.
Finding the correct decryption tool on the internet can be very frustrating. For this reason, we recommend that you use the No More Ransom Project and this is where identifying the ransomware infection is useful. The No More Ransom Project website contains a "Decryption Tools" section with a search bar. Enter the name of the identified ransomware, and all available decryptors (if there are any) will be listed.
Restore files with data recovery tools:
Depending on the situation (quality of ransomware infection, type of encryption algorithm used, etc.), restoring data with certain third-party tools might be possible. Therefore, we advise you to use the Recuva tool developed by CCleaner. This tool supports over a thousand data types (graphics, video, audio, documents, etc.) and it is very intuitive (little knowledge is necessary to recover data). In addition, the recovery feature is completely free.
Step 1: Perform a scan.
Run the Recuva application and follow the wizard. You will be prompted with several windows allowing you to choose what file types to look for, which locations should be scanned, etc. All you need to do is select the options you're looking for and start the scan. We advise you to enable the "Deep Scan" before starting, otherwise, the application's scanning capabilities will be restricted.
Wait for Recuva to complete the scan. The scanning duration depends on the volume of files (both in quantity and size) that you are scanning (for example, several hundred gigabytes could take over an hour to scan). Therefore, be patient during the scanning process. We also advise against modifying or deleting existing files, since this might interfere with the scan. If you add additional data (for example, downloading files/content) while scanning, this will prolong the process:
Step 2: Recover data.
Once the process is complete, select the folders/files you wish to restore and simply click "Recover". Note that some free space on your storage drive is necessary to restore data:
Create data backups:
Proper file management and creating backups is essential for data security. Therefore, always be very careful and think ahead.
Partition management: We recommend that you store your data in multiple partitions and avoid storing important files within the partition that contains the entire operating system. If you fall into a situation whereby you cannot boot the system and are forced to format the disk on which the operating system is installed (in most cases, this is where malware infections hide), you will lose all data stored within that drive. This is the advantage of having multiple partitions: if you have the entire storage device assigned to a single partition, you will be forced to delete everything, however, creating multiple partitions and allocating the data properly allows you to prevent such problems. You can easily format a single partition without affecting the others - therefore, one will be cleaned and the others will remain untouched, and your data will be saved. Managing partitions is quite simple and you can find all the necessary information on Microsoft's documentation web page.
Data backups: One of the most reliable backup methods is to use an external storage device and keep it unplugged. Copy your data to an external hard drive, flash (thumb) drive, SSD, HDD, or any other storage device, unplug it and store it in a dry place away from the sun and extreme temperatures. This method is, however, quite inefficient, since data backups and updates need to be made regularly. You can also use a cloud service or remote server. Here, an internet connection is required and there is always the chance of a security breach, although it's a really rare occasion.
We recommend using Microsoft OneDrive for backing up your files. OneDrive lets you store your personal files and data in the cloud, sync files across computers and mobile devices, allowing you to access and edit your files from all of your Windows devices. OneDrive lets you save, share and preview files, access download history, move, delete, and rename files, as well as create new folders, and much more.
You can back up your most important folders and files on your PC (your Desktop, Documents, and Pictures folders). Some of OneDrive’s more notable features include file versioning, which keeps older versions of files for up to 30 days. OneDrive features a recycling bin in which all of your deleted files are stored for a limited time. Deleted files are not counted as part of the user’s allocation.
The service is built using HTML5 technologies and allows you to upload files up to 300 MB via drag and drop into the web browser or up to 10 GB via the OneDrive desktop application. With OneDrive, you can download entire folders as a single ZIP file with up to 10,000 files, although it can’t exceed 15 GB per single download.
OneDrive comes with 5 GB of free storage out of the box, with an additional 100 GB, 1 TB, and 6 TB storage options available for a subscription-based fee. You can get one of these storage plans by either purchasing additional storage separately or with Office 365 subscription.
Creating a data backup:
The backup process is the same for all file types and folders. Here’s how you can back up your files using Microsoft OneDrive
Step 1: Choose the files/folders you want to backup.
Click the OneDrive cloud icon to open the OneDrive menu. While in this menu, you can customize your file backup settings.
Click Help & Settings and then select Settings from the drop-down menu.
Go to the Backup tab and click Manage backup.
In this menu, you can choose to backup the Desktop and all of the files on it, and Documents and Pictures folders, again, with all of the files in them. Click Start backup.
Now, when you add a file or folder in the Desktop and Documents and Pictures folders, they will be automatically backed up on OneDrive.
To add folders and files, not in the locations shown above, you have to add them manually.
Open File Explorer and navigate to the location of the folder/file you want to backup. Select the item, right-click it, and click Copy.
Then, navigate to OneDrive, right-click anywhere in the window and click Paste. Alternatively, you can just drag and drop a file into OneDrive. OneDrive will automatically create a backup of the folder/file.
All of the files added to the OneDrive folder are backed up in the cloud automatically. The green circle with the checkmark in it indicates that the file is available both locally and on OneDrive and that the file version is the same on both. The blue cloud icon indicates that the file has not been synced and is available only on OneDrive. The sync icon indicates that the file is currently syncing.
To access files only located on OneDrive online, go to the Help & Settings drop-down menu and select View online.
Step 2: Restore corrupted files.
OneDrive makes sure that the files stay in sync, so the version of the file on the computer is the same version on the cloud. However, if ransomware has encrypted your files, you can take advantage of OneDrive’s Version history feature that will allow you to restore the file versions prior to encryption.
Microsoft 365 has a ransomware detection feature that notifies you when your OneDrive files have been attacked and guide you through the process of restoring your files. It must be noted, however, that if you don’t have a paid Microsoft 365 subscription, you only get one detection and file recovery for free.
If your OneDrive files get deleted, corrupted, or infected by malware, you can restore your entire OneDrive to a previous state. Here’s how you can restore your entire OneDrive:
1. If you're signed in with a personal account, click the Settings cog at the top of the page. Then, click Options and select Restore your OneDrive.
If you're signed in with a work or school account, click the Settings cog at the top of the page. Then, click Restore your OneDrive.
2. On the Restore your OneDrive page, select a date from the drop-down list. Note that if you're restoring your files after automatic ransomware detection, a restore date will be selected for you.
3. After configuring all of the file restoration options, click Restore to undo all the activities you selected.
The best way to avoid damage from ransomware infections is to maintain regular up-to-date backups.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
How was my computer hacked and how did hackers encrypt my files?
Victims themselves often open ransomware executables, as these files are usually disguised as or bundled with regular content. This malware is most commonly distributed via drive-by downloads, spam emails and messages, online scams, untrustworthy download channels (e.g., unofficial and freeware websites, Peer-to-Peer sharing networks, etc.), illegal software activation tools ("cracks"), fake updates, and malvertising.
How to open files encrypted by Maze ransomware?
Encrypted files need decryption for continued usage. In other words, the files can neither be opened nor otherwise used - unless they are decrypted.
Where should I look for free decryption tools for Maze ransomware?
In 2020 the master decryption keys for Maze were leaked and Emsisoft created a free decryption tool for this ransomware (more information).
Will Combo Cleaner help me remove Maze ransomware?
Yes, Combo Cleaner will scan your system and eliminate active ransomware infections. It must be stressed that while using an anti-virus is the first step in ransomware recovery - security software is incapable of restoring encrypted files.